XEN (Para Virtualized)

1 Introduction

The KEMP Virtual LoadMaster is a version of the KEMP LoadMaster that runs as a virtual machine within a hypervisor and can provide all the features and functions of a hardware-based LoadMaster.

This document describes the installation of the Virtual LoadMaster (VLM) within a Xen, para-virtualized environment. The VLM has been tested with Xen.org versions 3.1, 4.0 and 4.1.

There are several different versions of the VLM available. Full details of the currently supported versions are available on our website: www.kemptechnologies.com.

The Xen virtual machine guest environment for the VLM, at minimum, must include:

2 x virtual processors

2 GB RAM

16 GB virtual hard disk capacity (sparse where possible)

Para-virtualization requires some modification of the guest OS or application. The guest OS or applications are aware that they are in a virtual environment which allows for a near-native performance.

There may be maximum configuration limits imposed by Xen such as maximum RAM per VM, Virtual NICs per VM, and so on. For further details regarding the configuration limits imposed by Xen, please refer to the relevant Xen documentation.

A wide variety of Linux distributions can be used as the Dom0 operating system. For a full list of the compatible Linux distributions, please refer to www.xen.org.

KEMP LoadMaster has been tested with OpenSUSE 12.1 as the Dom0 operating systems and the 3.1 Xen.org version.

If you have any issues with the Virtual LoadMaster when using a different combination of Xen.org versions and Linux distributions as the Dom0, then please contact KEMP Support.

1.1 Prerequisites

The LoadMaster can only be deployed in a XEN para-virtualized environment if the LoadMaster firmware version is 7.1-32 or below. Version 7.1-34 and above needs to be deployed in a fully virtualized environment. For steps on how to install the LoadMaster in a XEN fully virtualized environment, refer to XEN Fully Virtualized, Installation Guide.

2 Installing Virtual LoadMaster (VLM) on a Xen Environment

The following instructions describe how to install a Virtual LoadMaster on a Xen environment.

2.1 Download the Xen, Para-Virtualized, Files

The VLM is packaged within a .tar.gz file for ease of deployment. This file can be freely downloaded from KEMP Technologies for a 30 day evaluation period. To download the VLM please follow the instructions below:

1. Go to http://www.KEMPtechnologies.com/try.

2. Click the Download Now button.

3. Within the Select your hypervisor section, select the option for Xen.

4. Select your country from the drop-down list provided.

5. Read the End User License Agreement.

6. To proceed with the download, ensure the I agree to the End User License Agreement terms check box is ticked.

7. Click Download.

8. Unzip the contents of the file to an accessible location within the Xen environment. The .zip file contains the following files, where x.x-xx denotes the release number:

- Installation_Guide-KVM.pdf

- Installation_Guide-XEN_Fully_Virtualized.pdf

- LoadMaster-VLM-7.2.36.2.14271.RELEASE-Linux-KVM-XEN.tar.gz: a zip file containing the disk image

- LoadMaster-VLM-7.2.36.2.14271.RELEASE-Linux-KVM-XEN.tar.gz.checksum.xml

- LoadMaster-VLM-7.2.36.2.14271.RELEASE-Linux-KVM-XEN.tar.gz.md5

- LoadMaster-VLM-7.2.36.2.14271.RELEASE-Linux-KVM-XEN.tar.gz.sha

2.2 Configure the Configuration File

To install a Virtual LoadMaster as a guest virtual machine within a Xen, para-virtualized environment, the first step is to create a configuration file detailing the correct parameters for your installation. The values for these parameters may differ depending on the Linux distribution in use as the Dom0 and on your networking requirements.

KEMP provides a sample configuration file within the Xen .tar.gz file, LoadMaster-VLM-x.x-xx-XEN.config.sample  which you can edit to create your own configuration file.

2.2.1 Edit the Sample Configuration File

Within the Xen .tar.gz file, KEMP have provided a sample configuration file, LoadMaster-VLM x.x-xx-XEN.config.sample. This file can be used to configure the required parameters for the Virtual LoadMaster.

 

MAC Addresses

Enter the MAC address and network bridge information for each NIC required in the installation.

vif=[ 'mac=00:16:3e:xx:xx:xx, bridge=br0, model=e1000',

      'mac=00:16:3e:xx:xx:xx, bridge=br1, model=e1000']

It's recommended to use a MAC address inside the range 00:16:3e:xx:xx:xx. This address range is reserved for use by Xen.

Only NIC types of ‘e1000’ are currently supported

 

VNC Support

It is recommended to use VNC to administer the console.

vnc=1

If you intend to configure a Virtual Service that utilizes L7 transparency, it is highly recommended that the NICs on Dom0 have the Generic Receive Offload (GRO) option turned off as otherwise performance levels may be impacted.

2.3 Check the Virtual Machine Settings

Please verify that the Virtual Machine settings are configured with the recommended values:

2 x virtual processors

2 GB RAM

16 GB virtual hard disk capacity (sparse where possible)

2.4 Power On the LoadMaster

Once the VLM has been deployed it can be powered on. To do this, from within the location where the Xen .tar.gz file was unzipped, type the following command:

xm create –c LoadMasterVLM

This starts the Virtual LoadMaster boot process and is immediately attached to the serial console.

Power On the LoadMaster.png

The VLM should obtain an IP address via DHCP. Make a note of this address.

If the VLM does not obtain an IP address, or if the IP address needs to be changed, it can be manually configured in the console by following the steps in the Configuring the LoadMaster via the Console section.

2.5 License and Configure the LoadMaster

The LoadMaster must now be configured to operate within the network configuration.

1. In an internet browser, enter the IP address that was previously noted.

Ensure to enter https:// before the IP address.

2. A warning may appear regarding website security certificates. Please click the continue/ignore option.

3. The LoadMaster End User License Agreement screen appears.

Please read the license agreement and, if you are willing to accept the conditions therein, click on the Agree button to proceed.

4. A screen appears asking if you are OK with the LoadMaster regularly contacting KEMP to check for updates and other information. If you are OK with this, click Continue to proceed. If you want to disable this functionality, remove the check from the Enable Call Home check box and click Continue to proceed.

Configure the LoadMaster.png

5. If using the Online licensing method, fill out the fields and click License Now.

If you are starting with a trial license, there is no need to enter an Order ID. If you are starting with a permanent license, enter the KEMP Order ID# if this was provided to you.

If using the Offline Licensing method, select Offline Licensing, obtain the license text, paste it into the License field and click Apply License.

For detailed instructions on how to register for a KEMP ID and license the LoadMaster, refer to the Licensing, Feature Description on the KEMP Documentation Page.

Configure the LoadMaster_1.png

6. If you entered an Order ID, a screen appears that provides a list of available licenses for that order ID, in addition to any licenses registered for the KEMP ID based on the LoadMaster platform type. Select the license type you want to apply to this LoadMaster.

If the license type you want is not displayed, please contact your KEMP representative.

7. Click Continue.

8. The login screen appears, enter the bal user name and the password.

9. In the screen informing you that the password has changed, press the Continue button

10. If your machine has shipped with a temporary license you should get a warning informing you that a temporary license has been installed on your machine and for how long the license is valid.

EM001.png

Click OK .

11. You should now connect to the Home screen of the LoadMaster.

H001.png

12. Go to System Configuration > Network Setup in the main menu.

13. Click the eth0 menu option within the Interfaces section.

Configure the LoadMaster_4.png

14. In the Network Interface 0 screen, enter the IP address of the eth0 interface, the network facing interface of the LoadMaster, in the Interface Address input field.

15. Click the Set Address button

16. Click the eth1 menu option within the Interfaces section

17. In the Network Interface 1 screen, enter the IP address of the eth1 interface, the farm-side interface of the LoadMaster, in the Interface Address input field.

18. Click on the Set Address button

This interface is optional, depending on the network configuration.

19. Click on the Local DNS Configuration > Hostname Configuration menu option.

Configure the LoadMaster_5.png

20. In the Hostname configuration screen, enter the hostname into the Current Hostname input field.

21. Click the Set Hostname button.

22. Click the Local DNS Configuration > DNS Configuration menu option.

Configure the LoadMaster_6.png

23. In the DNS configuration screen, enter the IP address(es) of the DNS Server(s)  which is used to resolve names locally on the LoadMaster into the DNS NameServer input field.

24. Click the Add button.

25. Enter the domain name that is to be prepended to requests to the DNS nameserver into the DNS NameServer input field.

26. Click the Add button.

27. Click the System Configuration > Network Setup > Default Gateway menu option.

Configure the LoadMaster_7.png

28. In the DNS configuration screen, enter the IP address of the default gateway into the IPv4 Default Gateway Address input field.

If you have an IPv6 Default Gateway, please enter the value in the IPv6 Default Gateway Address input field.

29. Click the Set IPv4 Default Gateway button.

The LoadMaster is now fully installed and ready to be used. For further information on how to configure and implement the Virtual LoadMaster, please refer to the LoadMaster documentation which can be downloaded from the http://kemptechnologies.com/documentation page.

3 Troubleshooting and Notes

3.1 Configuring the LoadMaster via the Console

If the LoadMaster does not automatically obtain an IP address using DHCP, or if the user prefers to configure the LoadMaster via the console, then the following configuration steps must be completed before starting the LoadMaster.

1. Login into the LoadMaster via the console using the settings

- lb100 login: bal

- Password: 1fourall

Configuring the LoadMaster.png

2. Enter the IP address of the eth0 interface, the network facing interface of the LoadMaster, in the input field within the Network Side Interface Address dialog box.

3. Press OK.

Configuring the LoadMaster_1.png

4. Enter the IP address of the default gateway in the input field of the Default Gateway dialog box.

5. Press OK.

6. Once these are set, a prompt will appear asking to connect to the web interface at the newly configured IP address. In an internet browser enter the IP address of the eth0 entered in Step 2.

Ensure to enter https:// before the IP address.

7. A warning may appear regarding website security certificates. Please click the continue/ignore option.

8. The LoadMaster End User License Agreement screen appears.

9. Please read the license agreement and, if willing to accept the conditions therein, click on the Agree button to proceed.

10. If the machine has shipped with a temporary license, a warning will appear informing that a temporary license has been installed on the machine and for how long the license is valid.

11. Click OK.

12. The Appliance Vitals screen of the LoadMaster should appear.

Licensing and Configuration_4.png

The LoadMaster is now fully installed and ready to be used. For further information on how to configure and implement the Virtual LoadMaster, please refer to the LoadMaster documentation which can be found here: https://kemptechnologies.com/documentation.

 

3.2 Common Xen Commands

The following list describes some commonly used Xen commands.

xm list
Shows a list of running Xen systems

xm create <filename>
Starts a DomU on a Dom0 using configuration set in the filename

xm create -c <filename>
Starts a DomU on a Dom0 using configuration set in the filename and immediately attach to the serial console

xm console <Domain>
Attach to the serial console of the domain

xm destroy <Domain>
Turn off the VM

3.3 Factory Reset

If you perform a factory reset on your VLM, all configuration data, including the VLM’s IP address is deleted. During the subsequent reboot the VLM attempts to obtain an IP address using DHCP. If the VLM is on a different subnet to the DHCP server then an IP address will not be obtained and the IP address is set to the default 192.168.1.101.

The VLM may not be accessible using this address. If this is the case then you must run through the quick setup via the console as described in the Configuring the LoadMaster via the Console section.

3.4 Items of Note

The following are some items to note when using LoadMaster in a Xen environment.

A filename may not match the running DomU name. Do an XM list to get the DomU name.

Xen VM's can be administered "locally" by either emulated serial, via xm console OR emulated VGA via VNC

Usually the customer will have a bridge for networking, /dev/br0 or br1, etc. A VM will not start unless their networking is perfect.

Xen logs are located in:

- /var/log/xen/qemu-dm-LoadMaster_VLM.log

- /var/log/xen/xend.log

4 Appendix A: Sample Configuration File

#DO NOT EDIT

name="LoadMaster-VLM"

description="LoadMaster_VLM_6.0-40CM"

memory=1024

maxmem=1024

vcpus=2

localtime=0

keymap="en-us"

boot="c"

#END OF DO NOT EDIT

# Add MAC address here. Please preserve the 00:16:3e as they are reserved for Xen

vif=[

  'mac=00:16:3e:XX:XX:XX, bridge=br1',

  'mac=00:16:3e:XX:XX:XX, bridge=br2',

  'mac=00:16:3e:XX:XX:XX, bridge=br3',

  'mac=00:16:3e:XX:XX:XX, bridge=br4',

]

# Specify the path to the VLM disk file

disk = [ 'tap:aio:/path/to/LoadMaster-VLM-6.0-40CM-XEN.disk,xvda,w' ]

# Specify the path to the kernel and ramdisk

root = "/dev/ram0"

kernel  = "/path/to/LoadMaster-VLM-6.0-40CM-XEN.linux"

ramdisk = "/path/to/LoadMaster-VLM-6.0-40CM-XEN.initrd"

vfb=['type=vnc,vncunused=1']

on_poweroff="destroy"

on_reboot="restart"

on_crash="destroy"

#VNC Support. It is recommended to use VNC to administer the console. Use vncdisplay field to determine what port the VLM is piped to.

vnc=1

vncviewer=1

vncdisplay=6

#DO NOT EDIT

stdvga=0

viridian=0

apic=0

acpi=1

pae=1

serial="pty"

References

Unless otherwise specified, the below documents can be found at http://kemptechnologies.com/documentation.

Licensing, Feature Description
XEN Fully Virtualized, Installation Guide

Last Updated Date

This document was last updated on 16 October 2017.

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