Web User Interface (WUI) - LTS

1 Introduction

KEMP Technologies products optimize web and application infrastructure as defined by high-availability, high-performance, flexible scalability, security and ease of management. KEMP Technologies products maximize the total cost-of-ownership for web infrastructure, while enabling flexible and comprehensive deployment options.

1.1 Document Purpose

This document describes the Web User Interface (WUI) of the KEMP LoadMaster. It describes in detail how to configure the various features of the KEMP LoadMaster using the WUI.

The available menu options in the LoadMaster may vary from the ones described in this document. The features available in a LoadMaster depend on what license is in place. To upgrade a license, please call a KEMP Technologies representative.

1.2 Intended Audience

This document is intended to help anyone who wishes to configure the KEMP LoadMaster using the WUI.

2 Home

Clicking the Home menu option displays the home page which presents a list of basic information regarding the LoadMaster.

Home.png

2.1 General Information

Last Login: If Session Management is enabled, the last successful login date and time will be displayed. For further information on Session Management, refer to the OCSP Configuration section.

IP address: The IP address of the LoadMaster.

LoadMaster Version: The firmware version of the LoadMaster.

General Information.png

If the Allow Update Checks feature is enabled - when a new version of the LoadMaster firmware becomes available, a message will be displayed at the top of the Home screen to inform you. To enable the auto-check feature, go to Certificates & Security > Remote Access. For further information, refer to the Administrator Access section.

Serial Number: The Serial Number of the LoadMaster.

Boot Time: The time of the last server reboot.

2.2 Virtual Service and Real Server Status

VS Status

This section displays some monitoring information for the Virtual Services, such as the percentage of Virtual Services that are up and the number of disabled Virtual Services. Clicking the Details link will display the View/Modify Services screen.

Syslog messages are generated every hour about the number of Virtual Services, SubVSs and Real Servers that are up/down etc. Syslog messages are also generated when a status changes.

RS Status

This section displays some monitoring information for the Real Servers, such as the percentage of Real Servers that are up and the number of disabled Real Servers. Clicking the Details link will display the Real Servers screen.

2.3 WAF Status

WAF Status.png

The Web Application Firewall (WAF) Status section will be displayed if at least one Virtual Service has WAF enabled. The values shown here are as follows:

The total number of requests handled by the WAF (shows all requests, whether they were blocked or not). Two requests will be recorded for each connection – one incoming and one outgoing request.

The total number of events handled by the WAF (i.e. requests that were blocked)

The number of events that have happened in the current hour (since xx.00.00)

The number of events that have happened since midnight (local time)

The number of times the event counter has gone over the configured warning threshold today. For example, if the threshold is set to 10 and there has been 20 events, this counter will be set to 2. The warning threshold is set on a per-Virtual Service basis by filling out the Hourly Alert Notification Threshold field in WAF Options in the Virtual Service modify screen. For further information, refer to the Web Application Firewall (WAF) Options section.

2.4 System Metrics

CPU Load: The percentage of load to the CPU of the LoadMaster appliance.

TPS [conn/s]: The total number of Transactions Per Second and the number of Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) transactions per second.

Net Load:  Network load in megabits per second, shown for each configured interface. The Net Load will only be displayed for interfaces which have been configured.

CPU Temp.: Displays the temperature of the CPU on supported hardware platforms.

The CPU Load and Net Load data is updated every 5 seconds.   

2.5 License Information

Clicking the View License link will display support and license details, such as the activation date and end date of the LoadMaster license.

If support has expired, a message will be displayed in the License Information section. To renew support, please contact KEMP.

Upgrade: Upgrade the LoadMaster by buying a license from the KEMP purchase portal.

2.6 Other Links

Other links are provided at the bottom of the home page:

Support & FAQ: A link to the KEMP Support site

Find Online Documentation: A link to the KEMP documentation page

About LoadMaster: A link to the About screen in the LoadMaster WUI.

3  Virtual Services

From this point onwards, the headings in this document generally correspond to the options in the main menu on the left of the LoadMaster WUI.

3.1 Add New

Add New.png

Here the Virtual IP (VIP) address, port, protocol and name are defined. The VIP address, name and port are manually entered into the text boxes and the protocol is selected from the drop-down list.

If templates are installed on your machine, a Use Template drop-down list is available whereby you can select a template to configure the Virtual Service parameters such as port and protocol.

For further information regarding templates, please refer to the Virtual Services and Templates Feature Description document on the KEMP Documentation Page.

For the LoadMaster Exchange appliance there is a maximum limit of thirteen (13) Virtual Services that may be configured.

3.2 View/Modify (Existing HTTP Service)

View Modify Existing HTTP.png

This screen displays a list of Virtual Services on the LoadMaster, summarizing the main properties of each and giving the options to modify or delete services, or create a new service.

CAUTION

Delete is permanent, there is no UNDO feature. Use with care.

Each configured Virtual Service may be changed by clicking the Modify button or deleted by clicking the Delete button.

The status of the Virtual Service is also displayed. Health checking is enabled by default when a Virtual Service is created. For further information on health checking, refer to the  Real Servers section.

The Virtual Service status may be one of the following:

Up – At least one Real Server is available.

Down – No Real Servers are available.

Sorry – All Real Servers are down and traffic is routed to a separately configured Sorry Server that is not part of the Real Server set, with no health checking.

Disabled – The Virtual Service has been administratively disabled by unticking the Activate or Deactivate Service check box in the Basic Properties section of the Virtual Service modify screen.

Redirect – A fixed redirect response has been configured. Redirect Virtual Services can be created by using the Add a Port 80 Redirector VS option in the Advanced Properties section. For more information, refer to the Advanced Properties section.

Fail Message – A fixed error message has been configured. A fixed error message can be specified using the Not Available Redirection Handling options. Refer to the Advanced Properties section for more information.

Unchecked – Health checking of the Real Servers has been disabled. All Real Servers are accessed and presumed UP.

Security Down – The LoadMaster is unable to reach the Authentication Server and will prevent access to any Virtual Service which has Edge Security Pack (ESP).

WAF Misconfigured – If the WAF for a particular Virtual Service is misconfigured, for example if there is an issue with a rule file, the status changes to WAF Misconfigured and turns red. If the Virtual Service is in this state, all traffic is blocked. WAF can be disabled for that Virtual Service to stop the traffic being blocked, if required, while troubleshooting the problem.

The image below shows the Virtual Service properties screen.  It is composed of several component sections:

View Modify Existing HTTP_1.png

Basic Properties - where the usual and most common attributes are set

Standard Options – the most widely used features of a Virtual Service

SSL Properties – if SSL acceleration is being used, it will show Acceleration Enabled and this section of the screen will be used to configure the SSL functions

Advanced Properties – the additional features for a Virtual Service

WAF Options – where the options relating to the Web Application Firewall (WAF) can be set

ESP Options – where the options relating to ESP are set

Real Servers/SubVSs – where Real Servers/SubVSs are assigned to a Virtual Server

Depending upon the service type, and enabled or disabled features, specific fields and options show in the WUI.  The screenshots in this document may not represent every possible configuration.

3.3 Basic Properties

There are three buttons adjacent to the Basic Properties heading:

Duplicate VIP

This option makes a copy of the Virtual Service, including any related SubVSs. All Virtual Service configuration settings are copied to the duplicate Virtual Service. When this button is clicked, a screen appears where the IP address and port can be specified for the copied Virtual Service.

Change Address

Clicking this button opens a screen where the virtual IP address and port of the Virtual Service can be modified.

Export Template

Export the Virtual Service settings as a template. Templates can be used to create Virtual Services quickly and easily. Virtual Services created from a template will have all of the settings preconfigured based on the settings in the template. The settings in the Virtual Service can then be changed, as needed. For more information on templates, refer to the Virtual Services and Templates, Feature Description.

Basic Properties.png

Service Name

This text box allows you to assign a nickname to the Virtual Service being created, or change an existing one.

In addition to the usual alphanumeric characters, the following ‘special’ characters can be used as part of the Service Name:

. @ - _

However, there must be at least one alphanumeric character before the special characters.

Alternate Address

This is where, if so desired, you would specify a secondary address in either IPv6 or IPv4 format.

Service Type

Setting the Service Type controls the options displayed for the Virtual Service.  It’s important to make sure the Service Type is set according to the type of application that you are load balancing. 

WebSocket Virtual Services must be get to the Generic Service Type.

The HTTP/2 Service Type allows HTTP/2 traffic - but does not currently offer any Layer 7 options beyond address translation (transparency, subnet originating, alternate source).

Activate or Deactivate Service

This check box gives you the option to activate or deactivate a Virtual Service. The default (active) is selected.

3.4 Standard Options

Standard Options.png

 Force L7

If visible, Force L7 should be selected (default).  If it is not selected, the Virtual Service will be forced to Layer 4.

 L7 Transparency

 Enabling this option makes the Virtual Service transparent (NO NAT).  However, if the client resides on the same subnet as the Virtual IP and Real Servers, then the Virtual Services will automatically NAT the source IP (enabling non-transparency).

If the Real Servers considered local option is enabled, then the Real Servers will be NATed (non-transparent), even if L7 Transparency is enabled. This only happens if the Real Server is the originator of the request to the Virtual Service (and not just answering requests from other clients).

Subnet Originating Requests

This option is only available if Transparency is not enabled.

When transparency is not enabled, the source IP address of connections to the Real Servers is that of the Virtual Service. When transparency is enabled, the source IP address will be the IP address that is initiating connection to the Virtual Service. If the Real Server is on a subnet, and the Subnet Originating Requests option is enabled, then the subnet address of the LoadMaster will be used as the source IP address.

This switch allows control of subnet originating requests on a per-Virtual Service basis. If the global switch (Subnet Originating Requests in System Configuration > Miscellaneous Options > Network Options in the main menu) is enabled then it is enabled for all Virtual Services.

It is recommended that the Subnet Originating Requests option is enabled on a per-Virtual Service basis.

For more information about the global option, refer to the Network Options section.

If the global option is not enabled, it can be controlled on a per-Virtual Service basis.

If this option is switched on for a Virtual Service that has SSL re-encryption enabled, all connections currently using the Virtual Service will be terminated.

Extra Ports

You may specify a range of ports, sequential or otherwise, starting with the base port already configured for the Virtual Service.  The port numbers are inputted to the field and separated with a space, and the maximum range is 510 ports. 

You can enter the extra ports either as port ranges or single ports separated by spaces or comma in whatever order you wish, for example, entering the list 8000-8080, 9002, 80, 8050, 9000 will add the ports 80, 8000 to 8080, 9000 and 9002.

Server Initiating Protocols

By default, the LoadMaster will not initiate a connection with a Real Server until it has received some data from a client. This prohibits certain protocols from working as they need to communicate with the Real Server before transmitting data.

If the Virtual Service uses one of these protocols then select the protocol from the drop-down list to enable it to work correctly.

The protocols that can be selected are:

SMTP

SSH

IMAP4

MySQL

POP3

Other Server Initiating Protocols

The Server Initiating Protocols option is not visible when the port specified in the Virtual Service is 80, 8080 or 443.

 Persistence Options

 Persistence is setup on a per Virtual Service basis. This section allows you to select whether persistence is enabled for this service, to set the type of persistence and the persistence timeout value.

If persistence is enabled it means that a client connection to a particular Real Server using the LoadMaster is persistent, in other words - the same client will subsequently connect to the same Real Server. The timeout value determines for how long this particular connection is remembered.

The drop-down list gives you the option to select the type of persistence. These are:

Source IP Address: The source IP address (of the requesting client) is used as the key for persistency in this case.

Super HTTP: Super HTTP is the recommended method for achieving persistence for HTTP and HTTPS services with the LoadMaster. It functions by creating a unique fingerprint of the client browser and uses that fingerprint to preserve connectivity to the correct Real Server. The fingerprint is based on the combined values of the User-Agent field and, if present, the Authorization header. Connections with the same header combination will be sent back to the same Real Server.

Server Cookie: The LoadMaster checks the value of a specially set cookie in the HTTP header.  Connections with the same cookie will go to the same Real Server.

Server Cookie or Source IP:  If cookie persistence fails, it reverts to source-based persistence.

Active Cookie:  With Active Cookie persistence, the cookies are generated by the LoadMaster, not the server.  When a connection comes into a LoadMaster Virtual Service configured with Active Cookie, the LoadMaster looks for a specific cookie. If that cookie is not there, the LoadMaster inserts it into the HTTP stream with a Set-Cookie directive. Existing cookies are not affected. As with the Server Cookie persistence method, the value for the LoadMaster-generated cookie is unique to each user, allowing the LoadMaster to differentiate between users. A benefit of this method is that no cookies need to be managed or generated by the servers, relieving the burden of server configuration. To gain better dispersion per client connection you can enable the Add Port to Active Cookie feature in the L7 configuration. For further information on this option, refer to the L7 Configuration section.
With Active Cookie persistence, the cookie is valid for the session or until the persistence time expires. For example, if using Active Cookie persistence with the persistence timeout set to 10 minutes and the client connects at 2pm, then disconnects and reconnects at 2.05pm – this would reset the persistence timeout value. If the client tries to connect to a Virtual Service after the persistence timeout has expired, they would present the old cookie. The LoadMaster will check its persistence table and see that it does not have a valid entry. The LoadMaster would then generate a new cookie for the client and would update its persistence table.

Active Cookie or Source IP:  If active cookie persistence fails, it reverts to source-based persistence.

Hash All Cookies: The Hash All Cookies method creates a hash of the values of all cookies in the HTTP stream. Cookies with the same value will be sent to the same server for each request. If the values change, then the connection will be treated as a new connection and the client will be allocated to a server according to the load balancing algorithm.

Hash All Cookies or Source IP: Hash All Cookies or Source IP is identical to Hash All Cookies, with the additional feature that it will fall back to Source IP persistence in the event no cookies are in the HTTP string.

Super HTTP and Source IP Address: This is the same as super HTTP but it also appends the source IP address to the string, thus improving the distribution of the resulting HASH.

URL Hash: With URL Hash persistence, the LoadMaster will send requests with the same URL to the same server.

HTTP Host Header: With HTTP Host Header persistence, the LoadMaster will send all requests that contain the same value in the HTTP Host: header to the same server.

Hash of HTTP Query Item: This method operates in exactly the same manner as Server Persistence, except that the named item being inspected is a Query Item in the Query String of the URL. All queries with the same Query Item value will be sent to the same server.

Selected Header: With Selected Header persistence, the LoadMaster will send all requests that contain the same value in the specified header to the same server.

SSL Session ID: Each session over SSL has its own session ID which can be persisted on.

For this option to appear as a persistence method, the Virtual Service needs to have a Service Type of Generic and SSL acceleration must be disabled.

If a Virtual Service is an SSL service and not offloaded, the LoadMaster cannot meaningfully interact with any of the data in the stream at Layer 7. The reason is, the data is encrypted and the LoadMaster has no way of decrypting it.

If, in the above scenario, a persistence mode that is not based off source IP is required, this is the only other option. When an SSL session is started, it generates a session ID for the connection. This session ID can be used to cause the client to persist to the correct server.

There are some downsides to this however, as most modern browsers regenerate the session ID at very short intervals, basically overwriting it, even if there is a longer interval set on the persist timeout.

UDP Session Initiation Protocol (SIP): This persistence mode is only available in a UDP Virtual Service when Force L7 is enabled. SIP uses request and response transactions, similar to HTTP. An initial INVITE request is sent, which contains a number of header fields. These header fields can be used for persistence.

Timeout

For each persistence method, there is a configurable timeout value that determines how long the persistence for each user is honored, selectable from one minute to seven days.

This timeout clock is started when the initial connection is established. The persistence timeout value is updated if the client reconnects within the timeout period. For example, if the persistence timeout is set to 1 hour and the client starts a connection at 2pm, if the client disconnects and then reconnects before 3pm they will still persist to the same Real Server. Also, the persistence record is updated to reflect this and the persistence countdown timer is reset back to 1 hour for this client.

Standard Options_1.png

If a client made connections to the Virtual Service repeatedly within the timeout period, the persistence would be honored indefinitely. For instance, given the following scenario:

Persistence Timeout is set to 10 minutes

A user makes several requests in the course of 20 minutes, but the time between connections is always less than 1 minute

The request should be sent to the correct Real Server, as long as it is available (i.e. passing health checks).

If the user goes idle for 20 minutes, then the next connection will be counted as a new session, and may be sent to a different server, depending on scheduling. If the connection is opened for more than 10 minutes and the client disconnects and reconnects, the persistence record would have expired, the LoadMaster will create a new persistence entry for that client and possibly send the client to a new Real Server. This is due to the fact that the persistence countdown starts once a connection is established, not at the closing of the connection.

If you are experiencing persistence issues, this may be due to the fact that the persistence timeout is not long enough. If this is not long enough, then the timeout value should be set for a higher amount. In general, matching this value to your server timeout value is recommended.

Header field name

When UDP Session Initiation Protocol is selected as the persistence mode is selected sin the LoadMaster, a text box called Header field name will appear. The header field that is to be used as the basis for the persistence information should be entered here.

Scheduling Methods

This section allows you to select the method by which the LoadMaster will select a Real Server, for this particular service. The scheduling methods are as follows:

Round Robin: Round Robin causes the LoadMaster to assign Real Servers to a session in order, i.e. the first session connects to Real Server 1, the second to Real Server 2 etc. There is no bias in the way the Real Servers are assigned.

Weighted Round Robin: This method uses the weight property of the Real Servers to determine which Real Servers get preference. The higher the weight a Real Server has, the higher the proportion of connections it will receive.

Least Connection: With this method, the current Real Server with the fewest open connections is assigned to the session.

Weighted Least Connection: As with Least Connection, but with a bias relative to the weight.

Resource Based (Adaptive): Adaptive scheduling means that the load on the Real Servers is periodically monitored and that packets are distributed such that load will be approximately equal for all machines. More details can be found in the section covering scheduling methods.

Resource Based (SDN Adaptive): A Virtual Service which is using an adaptive scheduling method (whether using SDN or not) can be viewed as a control system. The intent is to achieve an evenly distributed load over the Real Servers and the controller calculates an error value from this (that describes the deviation from the desired even distribution). It also calculates a set of control values (Real Server weights) that are fed back into the system in a way to decrease the error value.

Fixed Weighting: All traffic goes to highest weight Real Server that is available. Real Servers should be weighted at the time they are create and no two Real Servers should have same weight, otherwise unpredictable results may occur.

Weighted Response Time: Every 15 seconds the LoadMaster measures the time it takes for a response to arrive for a health check probe and uses this time to adjust the weights of the Real Servers accordingly, i.e. a faster response time relative to the other Real Servers leads to a higher weight which in turn leads to more traffic sent to that server.

Source IP Hash: Instead of using the weights or doing round robin, a hash of the source IP is generated and used to find the correct real server. This means that the real server is always the same from the same host.
You do not need any source IP persistence.

Because this method relies solely on the client (source) IP address and ignores current server load, using this method can lead to a particular Real Server becoming overloaded, or a general traffic imbalance across all Real Servers.

Idle Connection Timeout (Default 660)

The seconds before an idle connection is closed. There are some special values that can be set for this field:

Setting it to 0 will ensure that the default L7 connection timeout will be used. The default Connection Timeout value can be modified by going to System Configuration > Miscellaneous Options > Network Options.

Setting it to 1 will discard the connection after the packet is first forwarded – a response is not expected or handled

Setting it to 2 will use a DNS type of operation. The connection is dropped after the reply message.

Setting the Idle Connection Timeout to the special values of 1 or 2 allow better performance and memory usage for UDP connections and they correspond better to how UDP is used.

Quality of Service

The Quality of Service drop-down sets a Differentiated Services Code Point (DSCP) in the IP header of packets that leave the Virtual Service. This means that the next device or service that deals with the packets will know how to treat and prioritise this traffic. Higher priority packets are sent from the LoadMaster before lower priority packets.

The different options are described below:

Normal-Service: No special priority given to the traffic

Minimize-Cost: Used when data needs to be transferred over a link that has a lower “cost”

Maximize-Reliability: Used when data needs to travel to the destination over a reliable link and with little or no retransmission

Maximize-Throughput: Used when the volume of data transferred during an interval is important, even if the latency over the link is high

Minimize-Delay: Used when the time required (latency) for the packet to reach the destination must be low. This option has the quickest queue of each of the Quality of Service choices.

The Quality of Service feature only works with Layer 7 traffic. It does not work with Layer 4 traffic.

Use Address for Server NAT

By default, when the LoadMaster is being used to SNAT Real Servers, the source IP address used on the internet is that of the LoadMaster. The Use Address for Server NAT option allows the Real Servers configured on the Virtual Service to use the Virtual Service as the source IP address instead.

This option is most useful for services such as SMTP when the LoadMaster is in a public domain and when the service requires a reverse DNS check to see if the source address sent from the LoadMaster is the same as the Mail Exchanger (MX) record of the sender.

If the Real Servers are configured on more than one Virtual Service which has this option set, only connections to destination port 80 will use this Virtual Service as the source IP address.

The Use Address for Server NAT option only works on Virtual Services which are operating on the default gateway. This option is not supported on non-default gateway interfaces.

3.5 SSL Properties

SSL Properties.png

SSL Acceleration

 This checkbox appears when the criteria for SSL Acceleration have been met, and serves to activate SSL Acceleration.

Enabled: If the Enabled check box is selected, and there is no certificate for the Virtual Service, you will be prompted to install a certificate. A certificate can be added by clicking the Manage Certificates button and importing or adding a certificate.

Reencrypt: Selecting the Reencrypt checkbox re-encrypts the SSL data stream before sending it to the Real Server.

Reversed: Selecting this checkbox will mean that the data from the LoadMaster to the Real Server is re-encrypted. The input stream must not be encrypted. This is only useful in connection with a separate Virtual Service which decrypts SSL traffic then uses this Virtual Service as a Real Service and loops data back to it. In this way, the client to real server data path is always encrypted on the wire.

Supported Protocols

The checkboxes in the Supported Protocols section allow you to specify which protocols should be supported by the Virtual Service. By default, the three TLS protocols are enabled and SSLv3 is disabled.

Require SNI hostname

If require Server Name Indication (SNI) is selected, the hostname will always be required to be sent in the TLS client hello message.

When Require SNI hostname is disabled, the first certificate will be used if a host header match is not found.

When Require SNI hostname is enabled, a certificate with a matching common name must be found, otherwise an SSL error is yielded. Wildcard certificates are also supported with SNI.

When using a Subject Alternative Name (SAN) certificate, alternate source names are not matched against the host header.

Wildcard certificates are supported but please note that the root domain name will not be matched as per RFC 2459. Only anything to the left of the dot will be matched. Additional certificates must be added to match the root domain names. For example, www.kemptechnologies.com will be matched until a wildcard of *.kemptechnologies.com. Kemptechnologies.com will not be matched.

To send SNI host information in HTTPS health checks, please enable Use HTTP/1.1 in the Real Servers section of the relevant Virtual Service(s) and specify a host header. If this is not set, the IP address of the Real Server will be used.

Certificates

Available certificates will be listed in the Available Certificates select list on the left. To assign or unassign a certificate, select it and click the right or left arrow button. Then click Set Certificates. Multiple certificates can be selected by holding Ctrl on your keyboard and clicking each required certificate.

Clicking the Manage Certificates button brings you to the screen as described in the SSL Certificates section.

Reencryption Client Certificate

With SSL connections, the LoadMaster gets a certificate from the client and also gets a certificate from the server. The LoadMaster transcribes the client certificate in a header and sends the data to the server. The server still expects a certificate. This is why it is preferable to install a pre-authenticated certificate in the LoadMaster.

Reencryption SNI Hostname

Specify the Server Name Indication (SNI) hostname that should be used when connecting to the Real Servers.

This field is only visible when SSL re-encryption is enabled.

Cipher Set

A cipher is an algorithm for performing encryption or decryption.

Each Virtual Service (which has SSL Acceleration enabled) has a cipher set assigned to it. This can either be one of the system-defined cipher sets or a user-customized cipher set. The system-defined cipher sets can be selected to quickly and easily select and apply the relevant ciphers. Custom cipher sets can be created and modified by clicking the Modify Cipher Set button.

For a description of the default cipher sets, and instructions on how to configure custom cipher sets, refer to the Cipher Sets section.

Ciphers

The Ciphers list is read only and displays a list of the currently assigned ciphers. Clicking the Modify Cipher Set button will bring you to the Cipher Set Management screen. This screen allows you to create new and modify existing custom cipher sets. For further information, refer to the Cipher Sets section.

Client Certificates

No Client Certificates required: enables the LoadMaster to accept HTTPS requests from any client. This is the recommended option.

By default the LoadMaster will accept HTTPS requests from any client. Selecting any of the other values below will require all clients to present a valid client certificate. In addition, the LoadMaster can also pass information about the certificate to the application.

This option should not be changed from the default of No Client Certificates required. Only change from the default option if you are sure that all clients that access this service have valid client certificates.

Client Certificates required: requires that all clients forwarding a HTTPS request must present a valid client certificate.

Client Certificates and add Headers: requires that all clients forwarding a HTTPS request must present a valid client certificate. The LoadMaster also passes information about the certificate to the application by adding headers. For more information regarding the headers that are added please refer to the Content Rules, Feature Description.

The below options send the certificate in its original raw form. The different options let you specify the format that you want to send the certificate in:

- Client Certificates and pass DER through as SSL-CLIENT-CERT

- Client Certificates and pass DER through as X-CLIENT-CERT

- Client Certificates and pass PEM through as SSL-CLIENT-CERT

- Client Certificates and pass PEM through as X-CLIENT-CERT

Verify Client using OCSP

Verify (via Online Certificate Status Protocol (OCSP)) that the client certificate is valid.

This option is only visible when ESP is enabled.

3.6 Advanced Properties

Advanced Properties.png

 Content Switching

 Clicking the Enable button, enables rule-based Content Switching on this Virtual Service. Once enabled, rules must be assigned to the various Real Servers.  Rules can be attached to Real Server by clicking the None button located next the Real Server. Once rules are attached to a Real Server the None button will display the count of rules attached. 

Rules Precedence

 Clicking the Rules Precedence button displays the order in which Content Switching rules are applied. This option only appears when Content Switching and when rules are assigned to the Real Server(s).

Advanced Properties_1.png

This screen shows the Content Switching rules that are assigned to the Real Servers of the Virtual Services and the order in which they apply.  A rule may be promoted in the order of precedence by clicking its corresponding Promote button.

HTTP Selection Rules

Show the selection rules that are associated with the Virtual Service.

HTTP Header Modifications

Clicking the Show Header Rules button displays the order in which Header Modification rules are implemented. The number of rules (of both request and response type) is displayed on the actual button.

Advanced Properties_2.png

From within the screen you can Add and Delete Header Modification rules. The order in which the rules are applied can be changed by clicking the Promote buttons.

Enable Caching

 This option enables caching of static content. This saves valuable Real Server processing power and bandwidth. Caching can be enabled per HTTP and offloaded HTTPS Virtual Services. 

Types of file that can be cached may be defined in AFE configuration under the Systems Configuration > Miscellaneous Options menu.

Maximum Cache Usage

This option limits the size of the cache memory per Virtual Service. For example, two Virtual Services, each running with a limit of 50% will use 100% of the cache store. The default is No Limit. It is recommended to limit the cache size to prevent unequal use of the cache store.   Ensure that the cache maximum usage is adjusted so that each Virtual Service has a percentage of cache to use.  If there is not remaining space to be allocated for a cache enabled Virtual Service, that service will not cache content. 

Enable Compression

Files sent from LoadMaster are compressed with Gzip.

If compression is enabled without caching, LoadMaster performance may suffer. When compression and caching are both enabled on a Virtual Service, compression will only be applied to the cached entry (if the entry would be cached). The first request is not compressed; it is used to fill the cache. The system can either fill the cache or compress the request – it cannot do both at the same time.

The types of file that can be compressed may be defined in AFE configuration in the Systems Configuration > Miscellaneous section of the LoadMaster WUI.

Compression is not recommended for files 100MB or greater in size.

More RAM may need to be added to Virtual LoadMasters via the hypervisor in order to compress large files.

Detect Malicious Requests

 The Intrusion Prevention System (IPS) service will provide in-line protection of Real Server(s) by providing real-time mitigation of attacks and isolation of Real Server(s).  Intrusion prevention is based on the industry standard SNORT database and provides real-time intrusion alerting.

To get updated or customized rules, please refer to the SNORT website: https://www.snort.org/.

 Selecting the Detect Malicious Requests check box enables the IPS per HTTP and offloaded HTTPS Virtual Services. There are two options for handling of requests that match a SNORT rule. Drop Connection, where a rule match will generate no HTTP response, or Send Reject, where a rule match will generate a response to the client of HTTP 400 “Invalid Request”.  Both options prevent the request from reaching the Real Server(s).

Enable Multiple Connect

Enabling this option permits the LoadMaster to manage connection handling between the LoadMaster and the Real Servers. Requests from multiple clients will be sent over the same TCP connection.

Multiplexing only works for simple HTTP GET operations. The Enable Multiple Connect check box will not be available in certain situations, for example if WAF, ESP or SSL Acceleration is enabled.

Port Following

 Port following enables a switch from an HTTP connection to an HTTPS (SSL) connection to be persistent on the same Real Server. Port following is possible between UDP and TCP connections.

To switch on port following, the following must be true:

The Virtual Service where port following is being switched on must be an HTTPS service

There must be a HTTP service

 Both of these Virtual Services must the same Layer 7 persistence mode selected, that is, Super HTTP or Source IP Address persistence

Port following is not available on SubVSs.

For further information, refer to the Port Following, Feature Description.

Add Header to Request

Input the key and the value for the extra header that is to be inserted into every request sent to the Real Servers.

Click the Set Header button to implement the functionality.

Add HTTP Headers

The Add HTTP Headers drop-down list is only available when SSL offloading (SSL Acceleration) is enabled.

This option allows you to select which headers are to be added to the HTTP stream. The options available include:

- Legacy Operation(X-ClientSide)

- None

- X-Forwarded-For (+ Via)X-Forwarded-For (No Via)

- X-ClientSide (+ Via)

- X-ClientSide (No Via)

- Via Only

In the Legacy operation, if the system is in HTTP kernel mode, then a header is added. Otherwise nothing is done. For the other operation methods, then the system is forced into HTTP kernel mode and the specified operation is performed.

Sorry Server

Enter the IP Address and Port number in the applicable fields. If no Real Servers are available, the LoadMaster will redirect to a specified location, with no checking. The IP address of a Sorry Server must be on a network or subnet that is defined on the LoadMaster.

When using a Layer 4 Virtual Service, the Sorry Server should be on the same subnet as the Real Server.

When using a Layer 7 Virtual Service, the Sorry Server can be on any local network. It is also possible to add a non-local sorry server. For this, Transparency must be disabled, there must be a route to the Sorry Server and the Enable Non-Local Real Servers option must be enabled (System Configuration > Miscellaneous Options > Network Options).

Sorry Server functionality does not work with SSL reencryption.

Not Available Redirection Handling

When no Real Servers are available to handle the request you can define the error code and URL that the client should receive.

Error Code: If no Real Servers are available, the LoadMaster can terminate the connection with a HTTP error code. Select the appropriate error code.

Redirect URL: When there are no Real Servers available and an error response is to be sent back to the client, a redirect URL can also be specified. If the string entered in this text box does not include http:// or https:// the string is treated as being relative to the current location, so the hostname will be added to the string in the redirect. This field also supports the use of wildcards such as %h and %s which represent the requested hostname and Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) respectively.

Error Message: When no Real Servers are available and an error response is to be sent back to the client, the specified error message will be added to the response.

For security reasons, the returned HTML page only returns the text Document has moved. No request-supplied information is returned.

Error File: When no Real Servers are available and an error response is to be sent back to the client, the specified file will be added to the response. This enables simple error HTML pages to be sent in response to the specified error.

The maximum size of this error page is 16KB.

Not Available Server/Port

Advanced Properties_3.png

In a UDP Virtual Service there is an option to specify a Not Available Server and Port. When there are no Real Servers available to handle the request this option defines the URL that the client will receive.

The value of the Not Available Server can only be changed for UDP if the service is not currently using the Not Available Server.

Add a Port 80 Redirector VS

If no port 80 Virtual Service is configured, one can be created. It will then redirect the client to the URL specified in the Redirection URL: field.

Click the Add HTTP Redirector button to implement the redirector.

When the Add HTTP Redirector button is clicked, a redirect Virtual Service is created and this WUI option disappears from the relevant Virtual Service.

Default Gateway

Specify the Virtual Service-specific gateway to be used to send responses back to the clients. If this is not set, the global default gateway will be used.

Click the Set Default Gateway button to implement the default gateway. The Default Gateway for a Virtual Service is only used for that Virtual Service.

If the global Use Default Route Only option is set in System Configuration > Miscellaneous Options > Network Options, traffic from Virtual Services that have the Default Gateway set will be only routed to the interface where the Virtual Service’s default route is located. This can allow the LoadMaster to be directly connected to client networks without returning traffic directly using the adjacent interface.

Alternate Source Addresses

If no list is specified, the LoadMaster will use the IP address of the Virtual Service as its local address. Specifying a list of addresses ensures the LoadMaster will use these addresses instead.

Click the Set Alternate Source Addresses button to implement the Alternate Source Addresses.

This option is only available if the Allow connection scaling over 64K Connections option is enabled in the L7 Configuration screen.

Service Specific Access Control

Allows you to change the Virtual Service-specific Access Control lists.

If you implement the Access Control Lists option, the Extra Ports option will not work correctly.

3.7 Web Application Firewall (WAF) Options

Web Application Firewall WAF.png

The Web Application Firewall (WAF) feature must be enabled before you can configure these options.

Web Application Firewall WAF_1.png

To enable WAF, select the Enabled check box. A message will be displayed next to the Enabled check box displaying how many WAF-enabled Virtual Services exist and it will also display the maximum number of WAF-enabled Virtual Services that can exist. If the maximum number of WAF-enabled Virtual Services have been reached, the Enabled check box will be greyed out.

Utilizing WAF can have a significant performance impact on your LoadMaster deployment. Please ensure that the appropriate resources are allocated.

For virtual and bare metal LoadMaster instances, a minimum of 2GB of allocated RAM is required for operation of WAF. The default memory allocation for Virtual LoadMasters and LoadMaster Bare Metal instances prior to LoadMaster Operating System version 7.1-22 is 1GB of RAM. If this default allocation has not been changed please modify the memory settings before attempting to proceed with WAF configuration.

Default Operation

Select the default operation of the WAF:

Audit Only: This is an audit-only mode – logs will be created but requests and responses are not blocked.

Block Mode: Either requests or responses are blocked.

Audit mode

Select what logs to record:

No Audit: No data is logged.

Audit Relevant: Logs data which is of a warning level and higher. This is the default option for this setting.

Audit All: Logs all data through the Virtual Service.

Selecting the Audit All option produces a large amount of log data. KEMP does not recommend selecting the Audit All option for normal operation. However, the Audit All option can be useful when troubleshooting a specific problem.

Inspect HTML POST Request Content

Enable this option to also process the data supplied in POST requests.

Two additional options (Disable JSON Parser and Disable XML Parser) only become available if Inspect HTML Post Request Content is enabled.

Disable JSON Parser

Disable processing of JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) requests.

Disable XML Parser

Disable processing of XML requests.

Process Responses

Enable this option to verify responses sent from the Real Servers.

This can be CPU and memory intensive.

If a Real Server is gzip encoding, WAF will not check that traffic, even if Process Responses is enabled.

Hourly Alert Notification Threshold

This is the threshold of incidents per hour before sending an alert. Setting this to 0 disables alerting. This threshold also relates to the Events over Limit Today number which is displayed on the WUI home page. For example, if the threshold is set to 10 and there has been 20 events, the counter will be set to 2.

Rules

This is where you can assign/un-assign generic, application-specific, application-generic and custom rules to/from the Virtual Service.

You cannot assign application-specific and application-generic rules to the same Virtual Service.

Individual rules within each ruleset can be enabled/disabled as required. To enable a ruleset, tick the relevant check box. If you have not enabled/disabled rules in that ruleset previously, all rules will be enabled by default in the right box. If you have previously enabled/disabled rules in that ruleset, within that Virtual Service – the rules will retain their previous settings.

You can enable/disable individual rules as needed by ticking the relevant ruleset on the left and ticking/unticking the rules on the right.

Some rules or rule sets may have dependencies on other rules. There is no dependency check in the LoadMaster when rules are disabled - before disabling any rule, please be aware of any rule chains or dependencies.

When finished making changes, click the Apply button.

Clicking the Clear All button will disable all rules for the selected ruleset.

Clicking the Set All button will enable all rules for the selected ruleset.

Text can be entered in the Rule Filter text box in order to filter the rules to only show rules which contain the filter text.

Clicking Reset will disable all rulesets and rules.

3.8 Edge Security Pack (ESP) Options

The ESP feature must be enabled before you can configure these options. To enable the ESP function, please select the Enable ESP check box.

Edge Security Pack ESP Options.png

The full ESP Options screen will appear.

The ESP feature can only be enabled if the Virtual Service is a HTTP, HTTPS or SMTP Virtual Service

Edge Security Pack ESP Options_1.png

Enable ESP

Enable or disable the ESP feature set by selecting or removing the checkmark from the Enable ESP checkbox.

ESP Logging

There are three types of logs stored in relation to the ESP feature. Each of these logs can be enabled or disabled by selecting or deselecting the relevant checkbox. The types of log include:

User Access: logs recording all user logins

Security: logs recording all security alerts

Connection: logs recording each connection

Logs are persistent and can be accessed after a reboot of the LoadMaster. For further information on logs please refer to the Extended Log Files section.

Client Authentication Mode

Specifies how clients attempting to connect to the LoadMaster are authenticated. The following types of methods are available:

Delegate to Server: the authentication is delegated to the server

Basic Authentication: standard Basic Authentication is used

Form Based: clients must enter their user details within a form to be authenticated on the LoadMaster

Client Certificate: clients must present the certificate which is verified against the issuing authority

NTLM: NTLM credentials are based on data obtained during the interactive logon process and consist of a domain name and a user name

The remaining fields in the ESP Options section will change based on the Client Authentication Mode selected.

SSO Domain

Select the Single Sign-On (SSO) Domain within which the Virtual Service will be included.

Please refer to the Manage SSO Domains section for further information on configuring SSO Domains. An SSO Domain must be configured in order to correctly configure the ESP feature.

Only SSO domains with the Configuration type of Inbound Configuration will be shown as options in this SSO Domain field.

Alternative SSO Domains

Many organizations use extranets to share information with customers and partners. It is likely that extranet portals will have users from two or more Active Directory domains. Rather than authenticating users from individual domains one at a time, assigning Alternative SSO Domains gives the ability to simultaneously authenticate users from two or more domains using one Virtual Service.

This option appears only when more than one domain has been configured and when the Authentication Protocol for the SSO domains are set to LDAP.

Please refer to the Manage SSO Domains section for further information on configuring SSO Domains.

Edge Security Pack ESP Options_2.png

Before configuring the ESP Options to use Alternative SSO Domains ensure that, in the SSL Properties section, the Enabled and Reencrypt tick boxes are selected.

Edge Security Pack ESP Options_3.png

The domain name which appears in the SSO Domain drop-down list is the default domain. This is also the domain which will be used if only one is configured.

Previously configured alternative domains appear in the Available Domain(s) list.

Edge Security Pack ESP Options_4.png

To assign alternative SSO Domains:

1. Highlight each of the domains you wish to assign and click the > button.

An assigned domain is a domain which can be authenticated using a particular Virtual Service.

All domains which appear as available may be assigned to a Virtual Service.

2. Click the Set Alternative SSO Domains button to confirm the updated list of Assigned Domain(s).

3. Choose Basic Authentication from the Server Authentication Mode drop-down list.

When logging in to a domain using the ESP form, users should enter the name of the SSO Domain if an alternative domain needs to be accessed. If no domain name is entered in the username, users are, by default, logged on the domain entered in the default SSO Domain drop-down list.

To view the status of the Virtual Services, click Virtual Services and View/Modify Services in the main menu.

A list of the Virtual Services displays showing the current status of each service.

If alternative domains are assigned and there is an issue with a particular domain, the affected domain name is indicated in the Status column.

Allowed Virtual Hosts

The Virtual Service will only be allowed access to specified virtual hosts. Any virtual hosts that are not specified will be blocked.

Enter the virtual host name(s) in the Allowed Virtual Hosts field and click the Set Allowed Virtual Hosts button to specify the allowed virtual hosts.

Multiple domains may be specified within the field allowing many domains to be associated with the Single Sign On Domain.

The use of regular expressions is allowed within this field.

If this field is left blank, the Virtual Service will be blocked.

Allowed Virtual Directories

The Virtual Service will only be allowed access to the specified virtual directories, within the allowed virtual hosts. Any virtual directories that are not specified will be blocked.

Enter the virtual directory name(s) in the Allowed Virtual Directories field and click the Set Allowed Virtual Directories button to specify the allowed virtual directories.

The use of regular expressions is allowed within this field.

Pre-Authorization Excluded Directories

Any virtual directories specified within this field will not be pre-authorized on this Virtual Service and will be passed directly to the relevant Real Servers.

Permitted Groups

Specify the groups that are allowed to access this Virtual Service. When set, if a user logs in to a service published by this Virtual Service, the user must be a member of at least one of the groups specified. Up to 10 groups are supported per Virtual Service. Performance may be impacted if a large number of groups are entered. Groups entered in this field are validated via an LDAP query.

Some guidelines about this field are as follows:

The group(s) specified must be valid groups on the Active Directory in the SSO domain associated with the Virtual Service. The SSO domain in the LoadMaster must be set to the directory for the groups. For example, if the SSO domain in the LoadMaster is set to webmail.example and webmail is not the directory for the groups, it will not work. Instead, the SSO domain may need to be set to .example.com.

The group(s) listed must be separated by a semi-colon

A space-separated list does not work because most groups contain a space in the name, for example Domain Users.

The following characters are not allowed in permitted group names:
/ : + *

The authentication protocol of the SSO domain must be LDAP

The groups should be specified by name, not by full distinguished name

 

Include Nested Groups

This field relates to the Permitted Groups setting. Enable this option to include nested groups in the authentication attempt. If this option is disabled, only users in the top-level group will be granted access. If this option is enabled, users in both the top-level and first sub-level group will be granted access.

SSO Image Set

This option is only available if Form Based is selected as the Client Authentication Mode. You can choose which form to use to gather the Username and Password. There are three form options, Exchange, Blank and Dual Factor Authentication. There are also options to display the form and error messages in other languages.

Exchange Form

Edge Security Pack ESP Options_5.png

The Exchange Form contains the KEMP Logo

Blank Form

Edge Security Pack ESP Options_6.png

The Blank Form does not contain the large KEMP logo.

Dual Factor Authentication

Edge Security Pack ESP Options_7.png

The Dual Factor Authentication form contains four fields - two for the remote credentials and two for the internal credentials.

Remote Credentials are credentials that are used to authenticate against remote authentication servers such as RADIUS, before allowing the user to authenticate against Domain Servers such as Active Directory servers.

Internal Credentials are credentials that are used to authenticate against the internal domain servers such as Active Directory Servers.

If the Authentication Protocol of the relevant SSO Domain is set to RADIUS and LDAP, the SSO Image Set must be set to Dual Factor Authentication.

SSO Greeting Message

This option is only available if Form Based is selected as the Client Authentication Mode. The login forms can be further customized by adding text. Enter the text that you would like to appear on the form within the SSO Greeting Message field and click the Set SSO Greeting Message button. The message can have up to 255 characters.

The SSO Greeting Message field accepts HTML code, so you can insert an image if required.

The grave accent character ( ` ) is not supported. If this character is entered in the SSO Greeting Message, the character will not display in the output, for example a`b`c becomes abc.

Logoff String

This option is only available if Form Based is selected as the Client Authentication Mode. Normally this field should be left blank. For OWA Virtual Services, the Logoff String should be set to /owa/logoff.owa or in customized environments, the modified Logoff String needs to be specified in this text box. Multiple logoff strings can be entered by using a space-separated list.

If the URL to be matched contains sub-directories before the specified string, the logoff string will not be matched. Therefore, the LoadMaster will not log the user off.

Display Public/Private Option

Edge Security Pack ESP Options_8.png

Enabling this check box will display a public/private option on the ESP log in page. Based on the option the user selected on the login form, the Session timeout value will be set to the value specified for either public or private in the Manage SSO Domain screen. If the user selects the private option their username will be stored for that session. Refer to the Manage SSO Domains section for more information about these fields.

Disable Password Form

Enabling this option removes the password field from the login page. This may be needed when password validation is not required, for example if using RSA SecurID authentication in a singular fashion. By default, this option is disabled.

Use Session or Permanent Cookies

Three options are available to select for this field:

Session Cookies Only: This is the default and most secure option

Permanent Cookies only on Private Computers: Sends session cookies on public computers

Permanent Cookies Always: Sends permanent cookies in all situations

Specify if the LoadMaster should send session or permanent cookies to the users’ browser when logging in.

Permanent cookies should only be used when using single sign on with services that have sessions spanning multiple applications, such as SharePoint.

Server Authentication Mode

This field is only updatable when the Client Authentication Mode is set to Form Based.

Specifies how the LoadMaster is authenticated by the Real Servers. There are three types of methods available:

None: no client authentication is required

Basic Authentication: standard Basic Authentication is used

KCD: KCD authentication is used

If Delegate to Server is selected as the Client Authentication Mode, then None is automatically selected as the Server Authentication mode. Similarly, if either Basic Authentication or Form Based is selected as the Client Authentication Mode, then Basic Authentication is automatically selected as the Server Authentication mode.

Server Side configuration

This option is only visible when the Server Authentication mode value is set to KCD.

Select the SSO domain for the server side configuration. Only SSO domains which have the Configuration type set to Outbound Configuration are shown here.

3.8.1 SMTP Virtual Services and ESP

If you create an SMTP Virtual Service (with 25 as the port), the ESP feature is available when you select the Enable ESP checkbox but with a reduced set of options.

SMTP Virtual Services and.png

Enable ESP

Enable or disable the ESP feature set by selecting or deselecting the Enable ESP checkbox.

Connection Logging

Logging of connections can be enabled or disabled by selecting or deselecting the Connection Logging checkbox.

Permitted Domains

All the permitted domains that are allowed to be received by this Virtual Service must be specified here. For example, if you wish the Virtual Service to receive SMTP traffic from john@kemp.com, then the kemp.com domain must be specified in this field.

3.9 Sub Virtual Services

From within a Virtual Service you can create one or more ‘Sub Virtual Services’ (SubVS). A SubVS is linked to, and uses the IP address of, the ‘parent’ Virtual Service. The SubVSs may have different settings (such as health check methods, content rules etc.) to the parent Virtual Service and to each other. This allows the grouping of related Virtual Services, all using the same IP address. This could be useful for certain configurations such as Exchange or Lync which typically are comprised of a number of Virtual Services.

Users with the Virtual Services permission can add a SubVS.

Users with the Real Server permission cannot add a SubVS.

Sub Virtual Services.png

To create a SubVS, within a Virtual Service configuration screen, expand the Real Servers section and click the Add SubVS button.

Sub Virtual Services_1.png

A message appears stating that the SubVS has been created.

You cannot have Real Servers and SubVSs associated with the same Virtual Service. You can however, associate a Real Server with a SubVS.

Sub Virtual Services_2.png

When the SubVS is created, the Real Servers section of the Virtual Services configuration screen is replaced with a SubVSs section.

All the SubVSs for the Virtual Service are listed here. The Critical check box can be enabled to indicate that the SubVS is required in order for the Virtual Service to be considered available. If a non-critical SubVS is down, the Virtual Service is reported as up and a warning will be logged. If a critical SubVS is down, a critical log will be generated and the Virtual Service will be marked as down. If the email options are configured, an email will be sent to the relevant recipients. For further information on the email options, refer to the Email Options section. In all cases, if the Virtual Service is considered to be down and the Virtual Service has a sorry server or an error message configured, these will be used.

To modify the SubVS, click the relevant Modify button. A configuration screen for the SubVS appears. This contains a subset of the configuration options available for a normal Virtual Service.

Sub Virtual Services_3.png

The SubVSs can also be modified by clicking the relevant Modify button from within the main Virtual Services view. A Virtual Service with SubVSs is colored differently within the Virtual IP address section and the SubVSs are listed in the Real Server section. The SubVS details can be viewed by clicking the ‘parent’ Virtual Service to expand the view to include the SubVSs.

If you would like to remove a Virtual Service which contains SubVSs, you must remove the SubVSs first before you are able to delete the main service.

SubVSs may have different ESP configurations than their parent Virtual Service, however care must be taken to ensure that the parent Virtual Service and SubVS ESP options do not conflict.

3.10 View/Modify (Remote Terminal Service)

This section is not relevant to the LoadMaster Exchange  product.

Properties of the Virtual Service include the Generic Type and also provide Remote Terminal specific options.

 Persistence

If the terminal servers support a Session Directory, the LoadMaster will use the "routing " supplied by the Session Directory to determine the correct host to connect to. The LoadMaster persistency timeout value is irrelevant here - it is a feature of the Session Directory.

The switch "IP address redirection" in the Session Directory configuration must not be selected in order for this to work.

Using Session Directory with LoadMaster is optional, in terms of persistence. If the client pre-populates the username and password fields in the initial request, then this value is stored on the LoadMaster. As long as these fields are still populated upon reconnect, the LoadMaster will look up the name and reconnect to the same server as the original connection. The persistence timeout is used to limit the time the information is kept on the LoadMaster.

If using Terminal-Service or Source IP mode, then if neither of these two modes succeeds, then the source IP address will be used for persistency.

Service Check for the Virtual Service

 Only three options are available; ICMP, TCP and RDP. Remote Terminal Protocol (RDP) opens a TCP connection to the Real Server on the Service port (port 3389). The LoadMaster sends an a1110 Code (Connection Request) to the server.  If the server sends an a1101 Code (Connection Confirm) then LoadMaster closes the connection and marks the server as active.  If the server fails to respond within the configured response time for the configured number of times, or if it responds with a different status code, it is assumed dead. 

3.11  Real Servers

 This section allows you to create a Real Server and lists the Real Servers that are assigned to the Virtual Service. The properties of the Real Servers are summarized and there is also the opportunity to add or delete a Real Server, or modify the properties of a Real Server. When Content Switching is enabled, there is also the opportunity to add rules to, or remove rules from, the Real Server (see Add Rule).

Real Server Check Method

 This provides a list of health checks for well-known services, as well as lower level checks for TCP/UDP or ICMP. With the service health checks, the Real Servers are checked for the availability of the selected service. With TCP/UDP the check is simply a connect attempt.

Real Servers.png

Real Server Check Protocol

The tables below describe the options that may be used to verify Real Server health. You may also specify a health check port on the Real Server. If none are specified here, it will default to the Real Server port.

When the HTTP/HTTPS, Generic and STARTTLS protocols Service Types are selected, the following health check options are available.

Method

Action

ICMP Ping

 An ICMP ping is sent to the Real Server

HTTP

HTTP checking is enabled

HTTPS

 HTTPS (SSL) checking is enabled

TCP

A basic TCP connection is checked

Mail

The SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol) is used

NNTP

The NNTP (Network News Transfer Protocol) is used

FTP

The FTP (File Transfer Protocol) is used

Telnet

The Telnet protocol is used

POP3

The POP3 (Post Office Protocol – mail client protocol) is used

IMAP

The IMAP (Internet Message Access Protocol – mail client protocol) is used

Name Service (DNS) Protocol

The Name Service Protocol is used

Binary Data

Specify a hexadecimal string to send and specify a hexadecimal string to check for in the response

None

No checking performed

When the Remote Terminal Service Type is selected the following health check options are available.

Method

Action

ICMP Ping

 An ICMP ping is sent to the Real Server

TCP

A basic TCP connection is checked

Remote Terminal Protocol

An RDP Routing Token is passed to the Real Server.

This health check supports Network-Level Authentication.

None

No checking performed

For a UDP virtual service, only the ICMP Ping and Name Service (DNS) Protocol options are available for use

Enhanced Options

Enabling the Enhanced Options check box provides an additional health check option – Minimum number of RS required for VS to be considered up. If the Enhanced Options check box is disabled (the default), the Virtual Service will be considered available if at least one Real Server is available. If the Enhanced Options check box is enabled, you can specify the minimum number of Real Servers that must be available in order to consider the Virtual Service to be available.

Minimum number of RS required for VS to be considered up

This option will only appear if the Enhanced Options check box is enabled and if there is more than one Real Server.

Select the minimum number of Real Servers required to be available for the Virtual Service to be considered up.

If less than the minimum number of Real Servers is available, a critical log is generated. If some Real Servers are down but it has not reached the minimum amount specified, a warning is logged. If the email options are configured, an email will be sent to the relevant recipients. For further information on the email options, refer to the Email Options section.

Note that the system marks a Virtual Service as down whenever a Real Server that is marked as Critical becomes unavailable – even if Enhanced Options are enabled and there are more than the specified minimum number of Real Servers still available.

In all cases, if the Virtual Service is considered to be down and the Virtual Service has a sorry server or an error message configured, these will be used.

If the minimum number is set to the total number of Real Servers and one of the Real Servers is deleted, the minimum will automatically reduce by one.

When using content rules in a SubVS, the minimum number of Real Servers required has a slightly different meaning. A rule is said to be available and can be matched if and only if the number of available Real Servers with that rule assigned to them is greater than the limit. If the number of available Real Servers is below this limit, the rule can never be matched - the SubVS is marked as down and this is logged appropriately.

If a Real Server on a SubVS is marked as critical – the SubVS will be marked as down if that Real Server is down. However, the parent Virtual Service will not be marked down unless that SubVS is marked as critical.

3.11.1 HTTP or HTTPS Protocol Health Checking

When either the HTTP Protocol or HTTPS Protocol options are selected a number of extra options are available as described below.

HTTP or HTTPS Protocol Health.png

The post data option only appears if the POST HTTP Method is selected.

The Reply 200 Pattern option only appears if either the POST or GET HTTP Method is selected

URL

By default, the health checker tries to access the URL to determine if the machine is available. A different URL can be specified here.

Status Codes

Health check status codes can be set to override default functionality. Without any Status Codes set, the following HTTP status codes are considered to be Up:

200-299

301

302

401

Additionally, 2xx status codes are subject to pattern matching the response data, if this is configured. Other codes are considered up without pattern matching, even if it is set.

If custom health check codes are set:

Check codes may be set to a list of numbers, each from 300-599

Check codes may be up to 127 characters long, which means 32 valid codes

Any code in the list is considered to have a health check status of Up

Configured codes override the default set

- 2xx codes are always considered up in all cases and are subject to pattern matching, if configured

- Check codes may be official HTTP status codes, unofficial codes or custom-defined user codes – as long as they fall in the range of 300-599

- For a list of official HTTP status codes, refer to: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_HTTP_status_codes

- For a list of unofficial codes, refer to: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_HTTP_status_codes#Unofficial_codes

- Microsoft sub-codes using decimals can be supported, but only by the top-level status code

- For a list of Microsoft sub-codes using decimals, refer to: https://support.microsoft.com/en-us/kb/943891

- Sub-codes may not be configured in the Status Codes field – please use the three digit code

- Sub-codes are grouped by the top-level code

Use HTTP/1.1

By default, the LoadMaster uses HTTP/1.0. However you may opt to use HTTP/1.1 which will operate more efficiently. When using HTTP/1.1, the health checks are multiplexed to a single connection. This means that more health checks are sent to the server in a single connection which is more efficient from a connection point of view, i.e. there is only one connection rather than multiple connections

HTTP/1.1 Host

This field will only be visible if ‘Use HTTP/1.1’ is selected.

When using HTTP/1.1 checking, the Real Servers require a hostname to be supplied in each request. If no value is set, then this value is the IP address of the Virtual Service.

To send SNI host information in HTTPS health checks, please enable Use HTTP/1.1 in the Real Servers section of the relevant Virtual Service(s) and specify a host header. If this is not set, the IP address of the Real Server will be used.

HTTP Method

When accessing the health check URL, the system can use either the HEAD, GET or POST method.

Post Data

This field will only be available if the HTTP Method is set to POST. When using the POST method, up to 2047 characters of POST data can be passed to the server.

Reply 200 Pattern

When using the GET or the POST method, the contents of the returned response message can be checked. If the response contains the string specified by this Regular Expression, then the machine is determined to be up. The response will have all HTML formatting information removed before the match is performed.  Only the first 4K of response data can be matched. 

The LoadMaster will only check for this phrase if the reply from the server is a 200 code. If the reply is something else, the page will be marked as down without checking for the phrase. However, if the reply is a redirect (code 302), the page is not marked as down. This is because the LoadMaster assumes that the phrase will not be present and also it cannot take the service down, as the redirect would then become useless.

If the pattern starts with a carat ‘^’ symbol, it inverts the pattern response.

Both Regular Expressions and Perl Compatible Regular Expressions (PCRE) can be used to specify strings. For further information on Regular Expressions and PCRE, please refer to the Content Rules, Feature Description document.

Custom Headers

Here you can specify up to 4 additional headers/fields which will be sent with each health check request.  Clicking the Show Headers button will show the entry fields. The first field is where you define the key for the custom header that is to be part of the health check request. The second field is the value of the custom header that is to be sent as part of the health check request. Once the information is input, click the Set Header button. Each of the headers can be up to a maximum of 20 characters long and the fields can be up to a maximum of 100 characters long. However, the maximum allowed number of characters in total for the 4 header/fields is 256.

The following special characters are allowed in the Custom Headers fields:

; . ( ) / + = - _

If a user has specified HTTP/1.1, the Host field is sent as before to the Real Server. This can be overridden by specifying a Host entry in the additional headers section.  The User-Agent can also be overridden in the same manner.  If a Real Server is using adaptive scheduling, the additional headers which are specified in the health check are also sent when getting the adaptive information.

It is possible to perform a health check using an authenticated user: enable Use HTTP/1.1, select HEAD as the HTTP Method and enter the Authorization header with the correctly constructed value. The Authorization field is constructed as follows:

1. The username and password are combined into a string “username:password”.

2. The resulting string is then encoded using the RFC2045-MIME variant of Base64, except not limited to 76 char/line.

3. The authorization method and a space, i.e. “Basic “ is then put before the encoded string.

For example, if the user agent uses 'Aladdin' as the username and 'open sesame' as the password then the field is formed as follows:

Authorization: Basic QWxhZGRpbjpvcGVuIHNlc2FtZQ==

To send SNI host information in HTTPS health checks, please enable Use HTTP/1.1 in the Real Servers section of the relevant Virtual Service(s) and specify a host header. If this is not set, the IP address of the Real Server will be used.

Rules

If any of the Real Servers have Content Switching rules assigned to them the Rules column appears in the Real Servers section. A button with the number of rules assigned to each of the Real Server (or with None if there are no rules assigned) is displayed in the Rules column.

Clicking the button within the Rules column opens the Rules Management screen.

HTTP or HTTPS Protocol Health_1.png

From within this screen you can Add or Delete the rules assigned to a Real Server.

3.11.2 Binary Data Health Checking

When Binary Data is selected as the health check method, some other fields are available, as described below.

Binary Data Health Checking.png

Data to Send

Specify a hexadecimal string to send to the Real Server.

This hexadecimal string must contain an even number of characters.

Reply Pattern

Specify the hexadecimal string which will be searched for in the response sent back from the Real Server. If the LoadMaster finds this pattern in the response, the Real Server is considered up. If the string is not found, the Real Server will be marked as down.

This hexadecimal string must contain an even number of characters.

Find Match Within

When a response is returned, the LoadMaster will search for the Reply Pattern in the response. The LoadMaster will search up to the number of bytes specified in this field for a match.

Setting this to 0 means that the search is not limited. Data is read from the Real Server until a match is found. A maximum of 8 KB will be read from the Real Server.

Setting the value to less than the length of the reply string means that the check will act as if the value has been set to 0, that is, all packets (up to 8 KB) will be searched.

3.11.3 Add a Real Server

Clicking the Add New button brings you to the following screen where the properties of the Real Server are set.

Add a Real Server.png

Allow Remote Addresses: By default only Real Servers on local networks can be assigned to a Virtual Service. Enabling this option will allow a non-local Real Server to be assigned to the Virtual Service.

To make the Allow Remote Addresses option visible, Enable Non-Local Real Servers must be selected (in System Configuration > Miscellaneous Options > Network Options). Also, Transparency must be disabled in the Virtual Service.

When alternative gateways/non-local Real Servers are set up, health checks are routed through the default gateway.

Real Server Address: The Real Server address. This can either be an IP address or a Fully Qualified Domain Name (FQDN). This is not editable when modifying a Real Server. An FQDN can only be used if a Nameserver is configured. For further information, refer to the Host & DNS Configuration section. If an FQDN is used when adding a Real Server – the name is resolved at the time of adding. If it fails to resolve, the Real Server will not be created and an error will be generated.

Port: The forwarding port of the Real Server. This field is editable, so the port may be altered later if required.

 Forwarding Method: Either NAT (Network Address Translation) or Route (Direct) forwarding. The available options are dependent on the other modes selected for the service.

Weight: The Real Server's weight. This is weight of the Real Server, as used by the Weighted Round Robin, Weighted Least Connection and Adaptive scheduling methods. The default initial value for the weight is 1000, the maximum is 65535, and the minimum is 1. It is a good benchmark to give a Real Server a weight relative to its processor speed, for example, if server1 seems to bring four times the power of server2, assign a weight of 4000 to server1 and weight of 1000 to server2.

Connection Limit: The maximum number of open connections that a Real Server will accept before it is taken out of the rotation. This is only available for Layer 7 traffic. The limit stops new connections from being created, but it will allow requests that already have persistent connections to the server. Persistent connections include connections to a Virtual Service using Session Broker Persistence which include a Session Broker cookie as set by the Connection Broker.

A maximum number of 1024 Real Servers is allowed. This is the global limit and is divided among the existing Virtual Services. For example, if one Virtual Service had 1000 Real Servers, then the remaining Virtual Services can only have 24 further Real Servers in total.

For the LoadMaster Exchange, there is a limit of six Real Servers that may be configured.

Click the Add This Real Server button and it will be added to the pool.

Critical

This option will only appear if the Enhanced Options check box is enabled. For further information on the Enhanced Options check box, refer to the  Real Servers section.

In the Real Servers section of the Virtual Service modify screen, there is a Critical check box for each of the Real Servers. Enabling this option indicates that the Real Server is required for the Virtual Service to be considered available. The Virtual Service will be marked as down if the Real Server has failed or is disabled.

If a Real Server on a SubVS is marked as critical – the SubVS will be marked as down if that Real Server is down. However, the parent Virtual Service will not be marked down unless that SubVS is marked as critical.

This option overrides the Minimum number of RS required for VS to be considered up field. For example, if the minimum is set to two and only one Real Server is down but that Real Server is set to critical – the Virtual Service will be marked as down.

In all cases, if the Virtual Service is considered to be down and the Virtual Service has a sorry server or an error message configured, these will be used.

Healthcheck On

This option will only appear if the Enhanced Options check box is enabled. For further information on the Enhanced Options check box, refer to the  Real Servers section.

In the Real Servers section of the Virtual Service modify screen, there is a Healthcheck On drop-down list for each of the Real Servers. This allows you to specify what Real Server the health check is based on. This can either be set to Self in order to perform the health check based on that particular Real Server status, or another Real Server can be selected. For example – if Real Server 1 is down, any Real Servers which have their health check based on Real Server 1 will also be marked as down, regardless of their actual Real Server status.

Some points to be aware of are listed below:

A Real Server can only follow a Real Server and not a SubVS.

A Real Server can follow a Real Server that is also following a third Real Server. The status of the first two Real Servers will reflect the status of the third Real Server.

Chains of Real Servers are allowed – but loops are not allowed and cannot be created.

If a Real Server is deleted (either singly or as part of a Virtual Service), all Real Servers that are following the Real Server are reset to normal behaviour (that is, they will start using the Virtual Service health check options).

If all Real Servers in a Virtual Service are following Real Servers on a different Virtual Service, the health check parameters for the Virtual Service are not shown on the WUI (because the settings do not affect any Real Servers).

Disabling the Enhanced Options check box will disable all Real Server health check following for that Virtual Service.

3.11.4 Modify a Real Server

When you click the Modify button of a Real Server, the following options are available:

Modify a Real Server.png

Real Server Address

This field shows the address of the Real Server. This is not an editable field.

Port

This is a field detailing the port on the Real Server that is to be used.

Forwarding Method

This is a field detailing the type of forwarding method to be used. The default is NAT; Direct Server Return can only be used with L4 services.

Weight

When using Weighted Round Robin Scheduling, the weight of a Real Server is used to indicate what relative proportion of traffic should be sent to the server. Servers with higher values will receive more traffic.

Connection Limit

This is the maximum amount of open connections that can be sent to the real server before it is taken out of rotation. The maximum limit is 100,000.

3.12 Manage Templates

Templates make the setting up of Virtual Services easier by automatically creating and configuring the parameters for a Virtual Service. Before a template can be used to configure a Virtual Service, it must be imported and installed on the LoadMaster.

Manage Templates.png

Click the Choose File button, select the template you wish to install and click the Add New Template button to install the selected template. This template is now available for use when you are adding a new Virtual Service.

Click the Delete button to remove the template.

The KEMP Certified column will indicate whether the template was supplied by KEMP or not. If a template is certified, it has been provided by KEMP. If a template is not certified, it might be a template created by you (by exporting a Virtual Service).

For further details on templates, such as how to use a template to create and configure a new Virtual Service and where to obtain KEMP templates, please refer to the Unless otherwise specified, the below documents can be found on http://kemptechnologies.com/documentation.

document.

3.13 Manage SSO Domains

Before using the Edge Security Pack (ESP) the user must first set up a Single Sign-On (SSO) Domain on the LoadMaster. The SSO Domain is a logical grouping of Virtual Services which are authenticated by an LDAP server.

The maximum number of SSO domains that are allowed is 128.

Manage SSO Domains.png

Click the Manage SSO Domains menu option to open the Manage Single Sign On Options screen.

3.13.1 Single Sign On Domains

Two types of SSO domains can be created – client side and server side.

Client Side configurations allow you to set the Authentication Protocol to LDAP, RADIUS, RSA-SecurID, Certificates, RADIUS and LDAP or RSA-SecurID and LDAP.

Server Side configurations allow you to set the Authentication Protocol to Kerberos Constrained Delegation (KCD).

To add a new SSO Domain enter the name of the domain in the Name field and click the Add button. The name entered here does not need to relate to the allowed hosts within the Single Sign On Domain.

When using the Permitted Groups field in ESP Options, you need to ensure that the SSO domain set here is the directory for the permitted groups. For example, if the SSO Domain is set to webmail.example and webmail is not the directory for the permitted groups within example.com, it will not work. Instead, the SSO Domain needs to be set to .example.com.

If the Domain/Realm field is not set, the domain Name set when initially adding an SSO domain will be used as the Domain/Realm name.

3.13.1.1 Client Side (Inbound) SSO Domains

Single Sign On Domains.png

Authentication Protocol

This dropdown allows you to select the transport protocol used to communicate with the authentication server. The options are:

LDAP

RADIUS

RSA-SecurID

Certificates

RADIUS and LDAP

RSA-SecurID and LDAP

The fields displayed on this screen will change depending on the Authentication protocol selected.

LDAP Configuration Type

Select the type of LDAP configuration. The options are:

Unencrypted

StartTLS

LDAPS

This option is only available if the Authentication Protocol is set to LDAP.

RADIUS and LDAP Configuration Type

Select the type of RADIUS and LDAP configuration. The options are:

RADIUS and Unencrypted LDAP

RADIUS and StartTLS LDAP

RADIUS and LDAPS

This option is only available if the Authentication Protocol is set to RADIUS and LDAP.

RSA-SecurID and LDAP Configuration Type

Select the type of RSA-SecurID and LDAP configuration. The options are:

RSA-SecurID and Unencrypted LDAP

RSA-SecurID and StartTLS LDAP

RSA-SecurID and LDAPS

This option is only available if the Authentication Protocol is set to RSA-SecurID and LDAP.

LDAP/RADIUS/RSA-SecurID Server(s)

Type the IP addresses of the server or servers which will be used to authenticate the domain into the server(s) field and click the set server(s) button.

Multiple server addresses can be entered within this text box. Each entry must be separated by a space.

RADIUS Shared Secret

The shared secret to be used between the RADIUS server and the LoadMaster.

This field will only be available if the Authentication Protocol is set to RADIUS or RADIUS and LDAP.

LDAP Administrator and LDAP Administrator Password

These text boxes are only visible when the Authentication Protocol is set to Certificates.

These details are used to check the LDAP database to determine if a user from the certificate exists.

Check Certificate to User Mapping

This option is only available when the Authentication Protocol is set to Certificates. When this option is enabled - in addition to checking the validity of the client certificate, the client certificate will also be checked against the altSecurityIdentities (ASI) attribute of the user on the Active Directory.

If this option is enabled and the check fails, the login attempt will fail. If this option is not enabled, only a valid client certificate (with the username in the SubjectAltName (SAN)) is required to log in, even if the altSecurityIdentities attribute for the user is not present or not matching.

For more information, refer to the Kerberos Constrained Delegation, Feature Description.

Allow fallback to check Common Name

Enabling this option allows a fallback to check the Common Name (CN) in the certificate when the SAN is not available.

This field only appears when the Authentication Protocol is set to Certificates.

Domain/Realm

The login domain to be used. This is also used with the logon format to construct the normalized username, for example;

Principalname: <username>@<domain>

Username: <domain>\<username>

If the Domain/Realm field is not set, the Domain name set when initially adding an SSO domain will be used as the Domain/Realm name.

RSA Authentication Manager Config File

This file needs to be exported from the RSA Authentication Manager.

For more information on the RSA authentication method, including how to configure it, refer to the RSA Two Factor Authentication, Feature Description.

RSA Node Secret File

A node secret must be generated and exported in the RSA Authentication Manager.

It is not possible to upload the RSA node secret file until the RSA Authentication Manager configuration file is uploaded. The node secret file is dependent on the configuration file.

Logon Format

This drop-down list allows you to specify the format of the login information that the client has to enter.

The options available vary depending upon which Authentication Protocol is selected.

Not Specified: The username will have no normalization applied to it - it will be taken as it is typed.

Principalname: Selecting this as the Logon format means that the client does not need to enter the domain when logging in, for example name@domain.com. The SSO domain added in the corresponding text box will be used as the domain in this case.

When using RADIUS as the Authentication protocol the value in this SSO domain field must exactly match for the login to work. It is case sensitive.

Username: Selecting this as the Logon format means that the client needs to enter the domain and username, for example domain\name@domain.com.

Username Only: Selecting this as the Logon Format means that the text entered will be normalized to the username only (the domain will be removed).

The Username Only option is only available for the RADIUS and RSA-SecurID protocols.

Logon Format (Phase 2 Real Server)

Specify the logon string format used to authenticate to the Real Server.

The Logon Format (Phase 2 Real Server) field only appears if the Authentication Protocol is set to one of the following options:

RADIUS

RSA-SecurID

Logon Format (Phase 2 LDAP)

Specify the logon string format used to authenticate to LDAP.

The Logon Format (Phase 2 LDAP) field only appears if the Authentication Protocol is set to one of the following options:

RADIUS and LDAP

RSA-SecurID and LDAP

Logon Transcode

Enable or disable the transcode of logon credentials, from ISO-8859-1 to UTF-8, when required.

If this option is disabled, log in using the format that the client dictates. If this option is enabled, check if the client uses UTF-8. If the client does not use UTF-8, use ISO-8859-1.

Failed Login Attempts

The maximum number of consecutive failed login attempts before the user is locked out. Valid values range from 0 to 99. Setting this to 0 means that users will never be locked out.

When a user is locked out, all existing logins for that user will be terminated, along with future logins.

Reset Failed Login Attempt Counter after

When this time (in seconds) has elapsed after a failed authentication attempt (without any new attempts) the failed login attempts counter is reset to 0. Valid values for this text box range from 60 to 86400. This value must be less than the Unblock timeout value.

Unblock timeout

The time (in seconds) before a blocked account is automatically unblocked, i.e. unblocked without administrator intervention. Valid values for this text box range from 60 to 86400. This value must be greater than the Reset Failed Login Attempt Counter after value.

Session timeout

The idle time and max duration values can be set here for trusted (private) and untrusted (public) environments. The value that will be used is dependent on whether the user selects public or private on their login form. Also, either max duration or idle time can be specified as the value to use.

Idle time: The maximum idle time of the session in seconds, i.e. idle timeout.

Max duration: The max duration of the session in seconds, i.e. session timeout.

Valid values for these fields range from 60 to 86400.

Use for Session Timeout: A switch to select the session timeout behaviour (max duration or idle time).

The underlying network traffic may keep the session active, even if there is no obvious user interaction.

Test User and Test User Password

In these two fields, enter credentials of a user account for your SSO Domain. The LoadMaster will use this information in a health check of the Authentication Server. This health check is performed every 20 seconds.

Currently Blocked Users

This section displays a list of users who are currently blocked and it also shows the date and time that the block occurred. It is possible to remove the block by clicking the unlock button in the Operation drop-down list.

Different formats of the same username are treated as the same username, for example administrator@kemptech.net, kemptech\administrator and kemptech.net\administrator are all treated as one username.

3.13.1.2 Server Side (Outbound) SSO Domains

Authentication Protocol

This dropdown allows you to select the transport protocol used to communicate with the authentication server. The only option available for outbound (server side) configurations is Kerberos Constrained Delegation.

Kerberos Realm

The address of the Kerberos Realm.

Colons, slashes and double quotes are not allowed in this field.

This field only supports one address.

Kerberos Key Distribution Center (KDC)

The host name or IP address of the Kerberos Key Distribution Center. The KDC is a network service that supplies session tickets and temporary session keys to users and computers within an Active Directory domain.

This field only accepts one host name or IP address. Double and single quotes are not allowed in this field.

Kerberos Trusted User Name

Before configuring the LoadMaster, a user must be created and trusted in the Windows domain (Active Directory). This user should also be set to use delegation. This trusted administrator user account is used to get tickets on behalf of users and services when a password is not provided. The user name of this trusted user should be entered in this text box.

Double and single quotes are not allowed in this field.

Kerberos Trusted User Password

The password of the Kerberos trusted user.

3.13.2 Single Sign On Image Sets

Single Sign On Image Sets.png

To upload a new image set, click Choose File, browse to and select the file and click Add Custom Image Set. After adding the file, the supplied image set(s) will be listed on this page. It will also be available to select in the SSO Image Set drop-down list in the ESP Options section of the Virtual Service modify screen.

For more information on SSO image sets, including information on how the .tar file should be structured, refer to the Custom Authentication Form, Technical Note.

3.14 WAF Settings

You can get to this screen by selecting Virtual Services > WAF Settings in the main menu of the LoadMaster WUI.

WAF Settings.png

Enable Remote Logging

This check box allows you to enable or disable remote logging for WAF.

Remote URL

Specify the Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) for the remote logging server.

Username

Specify the username for the remote logging server.

Password

Specify the password for the remote logging server.

WAF Settings_1.png

The automatic and manual download options will be greyed out if the WAF subscription has expired.

Enable Automated Rule Updates

Select this check box to enable the automatic download of the latest WAF rule files. This is done on a daily basis, if enabled.

Last Updated

This section displays the date when the last rules were downloaded. It gives you the option to attempt to download the rules now. It will also display a warning if rules have not been downloaded in the last 7 days. The Show Changes button will be displayed if the rules have been downloaded. This button can be clicked to retrieve a log of changes which have been made to the KEMP Technologies WAF rule set.

Enable Automated Installs

Select this check box to enable the automatic daily install of updated rules at the specified time.

When to Install

Select the hour at which to install the updates every day.

Manually Install rules

This button allows you to manually install rule updates, rather than automatically installing them. This section also displays when the rules were last installed.

WAF Settings_2.png

Custom Rules

This section allows you to upload custom rules and associated data files. Individual rules can be loaded as files with a .conf extension, or you can load a package of rules in a Tarball (.tar.gz) file. A Tarball of rule files usually includes a number of individual .conf and .data files.

The .conf files should be in standard ModSecurity rule file format.

Custom Rule Data

This section allows you to upload data files which are associated to the custom rules.

4 Global Balancing

This menu option may not be available in your configuration. These features are part of the GSLB Feature Pack and are enabled based on the license that has been applied to the LoadMaster. If you would like to have these options available, contact KEMP to upgrade your license.

4.1 Enable/Disable GSLB

Click this menu option to either enable or disable GEO features. When GEO is enabled, the Packet Routing Filter is enabled by default and cannot be changed. When GEO is disabled, it is possible to either enable or disable the Packet Routing Filter in System Configuration > Access Control > Packet Filter.

4.2 Manage FQDNs

A Fully Qualified Domain Name (FQDN), sometimes also referred to as an absolute domain name, is a domain name that specifies its exact location in the tree hierarchy of the Domain Name System (DNS). It specifies all domain levels, including the top-level domain and the root zone. A fully qualified domain name is distinguished by its lack of ambiguity: it can only be interpreted in one way. The DNS root domain is unnamed, which is expressed by the empty label, resulting in an FQDN ending with the dot character.

Manage FQDNs.png

From this screen, you can Add or Modify an FQDN.

4.2.1 Add a FQDN

Add a FQDN.png

New Fully Qualified Domain Name

The FQDN name, for example www.example.com. Wildcards are supported, for example *.example1.com matches anything that ends in .example1.com.

4.2.2 Add/Modify an FQDN

Add Modify an FQDN.png

Selection Criteria

The selection criterion used to distribute the resolution requests can be selected from this drop-down list. The Selection Criteria available are:

Round Robin - traffic distributed sequentially across the server farm (cluster), that is, the available servers.

Weighted Round Robin – Incoming requests are distributed across the cluster in a sequential manner, while taking account of a static “weighting” that can be pre-assigned per server.

Fixed Weighting - the highest weight Real Server is used only when other Real Server(s) are given lower weight values.

Real Server Load - LoadMaster contains logic which checks the state of the servers at regular intervals and independently of the configured weighting.

Proximity – traffic is distributed to the closest site to the client. When using Proximity scheduling, new public sites are automatically mapped to geographic coordinates based on the GEO database. New private sites are mapped to 0º0'0" and function as expected. This coordinate should be overridden with accurate values in order to ensure correct balancing. The position of the client is determined by their IP address.

Location Based - traffic is distributed to the closest site to the client. The positioning of the sites is set by inputting the location of the site (country or continent) during setup. The position of the client is determined by their IP address. If there is more than one site with the same country code, requests will be distributed in a round robin fashion to each of the sites.

All Available – returns all possible healthy targets for an A, AAAA or ANY query request. The contents of the returned list is also controlled by the Public Requests and Private Requests settings:

- For Public Sites Only the list can only contain public addresses. Likewise, for Private Sites Only the list can only contain private addresses.

- For Prefer Public the list only contains public addresses, unless no public addresses are available – in which case the list contains private addresses (if any are available). Likewise, for Prefer Private the list only contains private addresses, unless no private addresses are available – in which case the list contains public addresses (if any are available).

- For All Sites the list contains all available addresses

The purpose of this is to provide a list of preferred addresses, if they are available. Otherwise, provide a list of non-preferred addresses as a failback measure for improved availability.

Fail Over

The Fail Over option is only available when the Selection Criteria is set to Location Based. When the Fail Over option is enabled, if a request comes from a specific region and the target is down, the connection will fail over and be answered with the next level in the hierarchy. If this is not available, the connection will be answered by the nearest (by proximity) target. If this is not possible, the target with the lowest requests will be picked. The Fail Over setting affects all targets.

Public Requests & Private Requests

The Isolate Public/Private Sites setting has been enhanced in version 7.1-30. The checkbox has been migrated to two separate dropdown menus to allow more granular control of DNS responses. Existing behavior has been preserved and will be migrated from your current setting, ensuring that no change in DNS responses is experienced.

These new settings allow administrators finer control of DNS responses to configured FQDNs. Administrators may selectively respond with public or private sites based on whether the client is from a public or private IP. For example, administrators may wish to allow only private clients to be sent to private sites.

The following table outlines settings and their configurable values:

Setting

Value

Client Type

Site Types Allowed

PublicRequests

Public Only

Prefer Public

Prefer Private

All Sites

Public

Public

Public

Public

Public

Public, Private if no public

Private, Public if no private

Private and Public

Private Requests

Private Only

Prefer Private

Prefer Public

All Sites

Private

Private

Private

Private

Private

Private, Public if no private

Public, Private if no public

Private and Public

Please note that exposing private IP address information to public queries in this way may result in exposed network details. Select this setting at your own risk.

Site Failure Handling

The default is for failover to occur automatically. However, in certain circumstances, for example in a multi-site Exchange 2010 configuration, this may not be optimal and different behaviour may be required. Failure Delay is set in minutes. If a Failure Delay is set, a new option called Site Recovery Mode becomes available.

Site Recovery Mode

This option is only available if a Failure Delay has been set. There are two options:

Automatic: The site is brought back into operation immediately upon site recovery

Manual: Once the site has failed, disable the site. Manual intervention is required to restore normal operation.

Enable Local Settings

Selecting this option will display two additional fields – TTL and Stickiness. These can be set on a per-FQDN basis or globally. To set them for an FQDN – enable local settings and configure them as needed. The per-FQDN settings will default to the value of the global settings when the FQDN is created.

TTL

The Time To Live (TTL) value dictates how long the reply from the GEO LoadMaster can be cached by other DNS servers or client devices. The time interval is defined in seconds. This value should be as practically low as possible. The default value for this field is 10. Valid values range from 1 to 86400.

Stickiness

‘Stickiness’, also known as persistence, is the property that enables all name resolution requests from an individual client to be sent to the same resources until a specified period of time has elapsed. For further information on Stickiness, refer to the GEO Sticky DNS, Feature Description.

Unanimous Cluster Health Checks

If this option is enabled, if any IP addresses fail health checking - other FQDN IP addresses which belong to the same cluster will be marked as down. When Unanimous Cluster Health Checks is enabled, the IP addresses which belong to the same cluster within a specific FQDN are either all up or all down. For example, example.com has addresses 172.21.58.101, 172.21.58.102 and 172.21.58.103 which all belong to cluster cl58:

If 172.21.58.101 fails, the unanimous policy forces 172.21.58.102 and 172.21.58.103 down as well.

When 172.21.58.101 comes back, the unanimous policy brings back 172.21.58.102 and 172.21.58.103 along with it.

So, at any given time – either all three addresses are available or all three addresses are down.

The same approach applies for site failure mode with manual recovery. Manual recovery causes a failed address to be disabled, so the administrator can re-enable it after fixing the problem. When Unanimous Cluster Health Checks is enabled, all three addresses will be disabled.

The unanimous policy ignores disabled addresses. So, if you know that an address is down, and for whatever reason you want to continue using the other addresses that belong to the same cluster, you can disable the failed address and the unanimous policy will not force down the other addresses with it.

When Unanimous Cluster Health Checks are enabled, some configuration changes may cause FQDN addresses to be forced down or brought back up. For example, if an address is forced down and you remove it from the cluster while the unanimous policy is in effect, the address should come back up. Similarly, if you add an address to a cluster where the unanimous policy is in effect and one of the addresses is down, the new address should be forced down. This change may not occur immediately, but it should happen the next time health checking occurs.

If there are addresses with the Checker set to None combined with addresses that have health checking configured – addresses with no health checking will not be forced down, but they can be forcibly disabled if the Site Recovery Mode is set to Manual. For example, say there are three addresses:

172.21.58.101 with a Checker of Cluster Checks

172.21.58.102 with a Checker of Cluster Checks

172.21.58.103 with a Checker of None

If site failure handling is off or automatic, the failure of 172.21.58.101 causes 172.21.58.102 to be forced down, but 172.21.58.103 remains up. The rationale is that if you do not want health checking on 172.21.58.103 then it should remain up.

However, if the Site Recovery Mode is set to Manual, failure of 172.21.58.101 causes both 172.21.58.102 and 172.21.58.103 to be disabled, along with 172.21.58.101. For site recovery – all addresses are disabled, even the ones with no health checking configured. This is to keep traffic away from the problem data center until the system administrators fix it. This does not conflict with having addresses with no health checking because you can have an address that is up but disabled.

Cluster

If needed, the cluster containing the IP address can be selected.

Checker

This defines the type of health checking that is performed. The options include:

None: This implies that no health check will be performed to check the health status of the machine (IP address) associated to the current FQDN

ICMP Ping: This tests the health status by pinging the IP address

TCP Connect: This will test the health by trying to connect to the IP address on a specified port

Cluster Checks: When this is selected, the health status check is performed using the method associated with the selected cluster

- When using Real Server Load as the Selection Criteria, and the cluster Type is set to Local LM or Remote LM, a drop-down list will appear called Mapping Menu. The Mapping Menu drop-down list will display a list of Virtual Service IP addresses from that LoadMaster. It will list each Virtual Service IP address with no port, as well as all of the Virtual IP address and port combinations. Please select the Virtual IP address that is associated with this mapping.
If a Virtual Service with no port is selected, the health check will check all Virtual Services with the same IP address as the one selected. If one of them is in an “Up” status, the FQDN will show as “Up”. The port does not come in to consideration.
If a Virtual Service with a port is selected, the health check will only check against the health of that Virtual Service when updating the health of the FQDN.

For further information regarding health checks, refer to the GEO, Product Overview.

Parameters

The parameters for the Selection Criteria are described and can be changed within this section. The parameters differ depending on the Selection Criteria in use, as described below:

Round Robin – no parameters available

Weighted Round Robin – the weight of the IP address can be set by changing the value in the Weight text box and clicking the Set Weight button

Fixed Weighting – the weight of the IP address can be set in the Weight text box

Real Server Load – the weight of the IP address can be set in the Weight text box and the Virtual Service which will be measured can be chosen from the Mapping field

Proximity – the physical location of the IP address can be set by clicking the Show Coordinates button

Location Based – the locations associated with the IP address can be set by clicking the Show Locations button

Delete IP address

An IP address can be deleted by clicking the Delete button in the Operation column of the relevant IP address.

Delete FQDN

An FQDN can be deleted by clicking the Delete button at the bottom of the Modify (Configure) FQDN screen.

4.3 Manage Clusters

GEO clusters is a feature mainly used inside data centers. Health checks are performed on a machine (IP address) associated to a specific FQDN, using the containing cluster server, rather than the machine itself.

Manage Clusters.png

In the Manage Clusters screen there are options to Add, Modify and Delete clusters.

4.3.1 Add a Cluster

Add a Cluster.png

When adding a cluster, there are 2 text boxes to fill out:

IP address – the IP address of the cluster

Name – the name of the cluster. This name can be used to identify the cluster while in other screens.

4.3.2 Modify a Cluster

Modify a Cluster.png

Name

The name of the cluster.

Location

If needed, the Show Locations button can be clicked in order to enter the latitude and longitude of the location of the IP address.

Type

The cluster type can be Default, Remote LM or Local LM:

Default: When the type of cluster is set to Default, the check is performed against the cluster using one of the following three available health checks:

- None: No health check is performed. Therefore, the machine always appears to be up.

- ICMP Ping: The health check is performed by pinging against the cluster IP address.

- TCP Connect: The health check is performed by connecting to the cluster IP address on the port specified.

Local LM: When Local LM is selected as the Type, the Checkers field is automatically set to Not Needed. This is because the health check is not necessary because the cluster is the local machine.

Remote LM: The health check for this type of cluster is Implicit (it is performed via SSH).

The only difference between Remote LM and Local LM is that it saves a TCP connection because it gets the information locally and not over TCP. Otherwise, the functionality is the same.

Checkers

The health check method used to check the status of the cluster.

If the Type is set to Default the health check methods available are ICMP Ping and TCP Connect.

If Remote LM or Local LM is selected as the Type, the Checkers dropdown list is unavailable.

Disable

If needed, a cluster can be disabled by clicking the Disable button in the Operation column.

4.3.3 Delete a Cluster

To delete a cluster, click the Delete button in the Operation column of the relevant cluster.

Use the Delete function with caution. There is no way to undo this deletion.

4.3.4 Upgrading GEO Clusters

When upgrading GEO clusters, it is strongly recommended that all nodes are upgraded at the same time. Since GEO clusters operate in active-active mode, upgrading at the same time ensures that consistent behavior is experienced across all nodes.

If you must operate a GEO cluster with mixed versions, be sure to make all changes from the most recent version. This prevents configuration loss due to incompatible configurations. Additionally, changing configuration options not present in older versions will result in disparate behavior.

4.4 Miscellaneous Params

A description of the sections and fields in the Miscellaneous Params menu option are below.

4.4.1 Source of Authority

Source of Authority.png

Source of Authority

This is defined in RFC 1035. The SOA defines global parameters for the zone (domain). There is only one SOA record allowed in a zone file.

Name Server

The Name Server is defined as the forward DNS entry configured in the Top Level DNS, written as a Fully-Qualified Domain Name (FQDN and ends with a dot), for example lm1.example.com.

If there is more than one Name Server, for example in a HA configuration, then you would add the second Name Server in the field also, separated by a blank space, for example lm1.example.com lm2.example.com.

SOA Email

This textbox is used to publish a mail address of a person or role account dealing with this zone with the “@” converted to a “.”. The best practice is to define (and maintain) a dedicated mail alias, for example “hostmaster” [RFC 2142] for DNS operations, for example hostmaster@example.com.

TTL

The Time To Live (TTL) value dictates how long the reply from the GEO LoadMaster can be cached by other DNS servers or client devices. This value should be as practically low as possible. The default value for this field is 10. The time interval is defined in seconds.

4.4.2 Resource Check Parameters

Resource Check Parameters.png

Check Interval

Defined in seconds, this is the delay between health checks. This includes clusters and FQDNs. The valid range for this field is between 9 and 3600. The default value is 120.

The interval value must be greater than the timeout value multiplied by the retry value (Interval > Timeout * Retry + 1). This is to ensure that the next health check does not start before the previous one completes.

If the timeout or retry values are increased to a value that breaks this rule, the interval value will be automatically increased.

Connection Timeout

Defined in seconds, this is the allowed maximum wait time for a reply to a health check. The valid range for this field is between 4 and 60. The default value is 20.

Retry Attempts

This is the consecutive number of times in which a health check must fail before it is marked down and removed from the list of healthy Real Servers. The default retry attempts is 2.

The maximum detection window for failed clusters of FQDNs is the Check Interval + (Connection Timeout * (Retry attempts + 1)). On average, the maximum time is half that.

The timeline diagram below illustrates what happens from the time a resource IP is added or enabled, to when it goes down and then comes back up again:

1. When a resource IP is enabled/created, an ICMP request is sent by the LoadMaster to the resource IP. Assuming it responds, the resource is marked UP.

2. After 120 seconds has elapsed (the default Check Interval), an ICMP request is sent to the resource IP. If 20 seconds (the default Connection Timeout) elapses and the IP fails to respond, the LoadMaster will send up to two additional requests (the default Retry Attempts) and wait for 20 seconds between each. If all three of these requests receive no response, then the resource is marked down, and the Check Interval timer is reset.

3. After 120 seconds elapses, the LoadMaster attempts to send an ICMP request to the resource IP. If the resource has now come back up and responds before the Connection Timeout elapses, the LoadMaster marks it UP and resets the Check Interval timer.

003.png

4.4.3 Stickiness

Stickiness.png

‘Stickiness’, also known as Global Persistence, is the property that enables all name resolution requests from an individual client to be sent to the same resources until a specified period of time has elapsed. For further information on Stickiness, refer to the GEO Sticky DNS, Feature Description.

4.4.4 Location Data Update

Location Data Update.png

The location patch contains the geographically-encoded IP to location data. Data files can be obtained directly from KEMP via normal support channels. These files are a repackaged distribution of Maxmind; the GeoIP database. To obtain the latest release, please contact support via http://www.kemptechnologies.com.

4.5 IP Range Selection Criteria

IP Range Selection Criteria.png

This section allows a new IP address range to be defined.

IP Range Selection Criteria_1.png

After adding an address, clicking Modify will open the modify settings screen. It is also possible to delete a range after it has been added.

IP Range Selection Criteria_2.png

This section allows the definition of up to 64 IP ranges per data center.

IP Address

Specify an IP address or network. Valid entries here are either a single IP, for example 192.168.0.1, or a network in Classless Inter-Domain Routing (CIDR) format, for example 192.168.0.0/24.

Coordinates

Specify the latitude and longitude of the location.

Location

Specify the location to be assigned to the address.

IP Range Selection Criteria_3.png

Add Custom Location

This section allows you to add a custom location.

IP Range Selection Criteria_4.png

Existing custom locations can also be modified and deleted in this section.

4.6 IP Blacklist Settings

It is possible to download blacklist rules from KEMP in order to block access from IP addresses which are on the blacklist. A whitelist can be manually specified which will override the blacklist.

IP Blacklist Settings.png

Enable Automated GEO IP Blacklist data Updates

If this option is enabled, updates to the GEO IP blacklist will be downloaded on a daily basis. By default, this option is disabled.

Last Updated

The date at which the last updates were downloaded is displayed. If the GEO blacklist data is more than 7 days old, a message will appear here to inform you.

Download Now

Click this button to download the updates now.

Enable Automated Installs

Select this check box to enable the automatic daily install of updated rules at the specified time.

When to Install

Select the hour at which to install the updates every day.

Manually Install GEO IP Blacklist data

This button allows you to manually install the updates. This section also displays when the updates were last installed. If the GEO blacklist data has not been updated for more than 7 days, a message will appear here to inform you.

View GEO IP Blacklist data file

Clicking the View button will display the current GEO IP Blacklist data file.

IP Whitelist Data Settings

This section displays the IP addresses that are currently on the whitelist.

Add New Address/Network

In this section, new addresses and networks can be added to the whitelist. The whitelist overrides the blacklist.

5 Statistics

5.1 Real Time Statistics

Shows the activity for the LoadMasters within the system (Global), the Real Servers, the Virtual Services and the WAF.

5.1.1 Global

Global.png

Total CPU Activity

This table displays the following CPU utilization information for a given LoadMaster:

Statistic

Description

User

The percentage of the CPU spent processing in user mode

System

The percentage of the CPU spent processing in system mode

Idle

The percentage of CPU which is idle

I/O Waiting

The percentage of the CPU spent waiting for I/O to complete

The sum of these 4 percentages will equal 100%.

Core Temperatures: The temperature for each CPU core is displayed for LoadMaster hardware appliances. Temperature will not show on a Virtual LoadMaster statistics screen.

CPU Details: To get statistics for an individual CPU, click the relevant number button in CPU Details.

Global_1.png

The CPU details screen has two additional statistics displayed - HW Interrupts and SW Interrupts.

Memory usage

This bar graph shows the amount of memory in use and the amount of memory free.

Network activity

These bar graphs show the current network throughput on each interface.

5.1.2  Real Servers

Real Servers_1.png

These graphs display the connections, bytes, bits or packets, depending on choice. The buttons in the top right of the page toggle which values are displayed. The values displayed for the Real Server comprise of the values for all the Virtual Services accessing the Real Server.

If the Real Server has been assigned to more than one Virtual Service, you can view the statistics for each Real Server by Virtual Service by clicking the arrow ( Real Servers_1_1.png ) to the right of the number in the first column. This expands the view to show the statistics for each Virtual Service on the Real Server.

Due to the way that encrypted services are implemented, it is not possible to view the packet statistics on an encrypted Virtual Service.

Name: The Name column is automatically populated based on a DNS lookup.

RS-IP: This column displays the IP address of the Real Servers, and the Virtual Service (if expanded).

Real Servers_1_2.png

Clicking the links in the RS-IP column will display another screen containing a number of statistics specific to that Real Server.

Status: This shows the status of the Real Server.

Adaptive: This will only be displayed if an adaptive scheduling method has been selected for a Virtual Service. This column will display the adaptive value.

Weight: This will only be displayed if the scheduling method is set to resource based (SDN adaptive) in a Virtual Service. The information which is gathered from the controller determines what the Adaptive value is set to. As the adaptive value goes up, the weight of the Real Server goes down. If all adaptive values are the same, all weights will be the same. When the adaptive values are different the weights will change. The weight of the Real Servers determines where traffic is sent. If a Real Server is configured in multiple Virtual Services, two numbers will be displayed for the weight - the first shows the average of the current weights over all Virtual Services that the Real Server is configured in. The second shows the number of Virtual Services that the Real Server is configured in. For example, a Weight of 972/2 means that the average weight of a Real Server which is configured in two Virtual Services is 972.

Total Conns: The total number of connections made.

Last 60 Sec: The total number of connections in the last 60 seconds.

5 Mins: The total number of connections in the last 5 minutes.

30 Mins: The total number of connections in the last 30 minutes.

1 Hour: The total number of connections in the last hour.

Active Conns: The total number of connections that are currently active.

Current Rate Conns/sec: The current rate of connections per second.

[%]: The percentage of connections per second.

Conns/sec: A graphical representations of the connections per second.

System Total Conns: This row displays totals for each of the columns.

5.1.3 Virtual Services

Virtual Services_1.png

These graphs display the connections, bytes, bits or packets, depending on choice. The buttons in the top right of the page toggle which values are displayed. The percentage of distribution across the Virtual Service's Real Servers are displayed.

Name: The name of the Virtual Service.

Virtual IP Address: The IP address and port of the Virtual Service.

Virtual Services_1_1.png

Clicking the links in the Virtual IP Address column will display another screen containing a number of statistics specific to that Virtual Service.

Address: The IP address of the Virtual Service.

Protocol: The protocol of the Virtual Service. This will either be tcp or udp.

Active Conns: The total number of connections that are currently active.

Total Conns: The total number of connections made.

Total Bytes: The total number of bytes transmitted.

Real Servers: The total number of Real Servers in this Virtual Service.

Persist Entries: The total number of persistence entries made.

WAF: The status, along with the other WAF statistics below, will be displayed if WAF is enabled on the Virtual Service.

Requests: The total number of requests handled by the WAF (shows all requests, whether they were blocked or not). Two requests will be recorded for each connection – one incoming and one outgoing request.

Incidents: The total number of events handled by the WAF (i.e. requests that were blocked).

Incidents/Hour: The number of events that have happened in the current hour (since xx.00.00).

Incidents/Day: The number of events that have happened since midnight (local time).

Incidents/Dayover: The number of times the event counter has gone over the configured warning threshold today. For example, if the threshold is set to 10 and there has been 20 events, this counter will be set to 2. The warning threshold is set on a per-Virtual Service basis by filling out the Hourly Alert Notification Threshold field in WAF Options in the Virtual Service modify screen. For further information, refer to the Web Application Firewall (WAF) Options section.

System Total Conns: This row displays totals for each of the columns.

5.1.4 WAF

WAF.png

These statistics refresh every 5 to 6 seconds. The following items are displayed on this screen:

Count: The left-most column displays the total number of WAF-enabled Virtual Services.

Name: The name of the WAF-enabled Virtual Service.

Virtual IP Address: The IP address and port of the Virtual Service.

Protocol: The protocol of the Virtual Service (tcp or udp).

Status: The status of the Virtual Service. For information on each of the possible statuses, refer to the View/Modify (Existing HTTP Service) section.

Total Requests: The total number of requests handled by the WAF (shows all requests, whether they were blocked or not). Two requests will be recorded for each connection – one incoming and one outgoing request.

Total Events: The total number of events handled by the WAF (i.e. requests that were blocked).

Events this hour: The number of events that have happened in the current hour (since xx.00.00).

Events Today: The number of events that have happened since midnight (local time).

Events over Limit Today: The number of times the event counter has gone over the configured warning threshold today. For example, if the threshold is set to 10 and there has been 20 events, this counter will be set to 2. The warning threshold is set on a per-Virtual Service basis by filling out the Hourly Alert Notification Threshold field in WAF Options in the Virtual Service modify screen. For further information, refer to the Web Application Firewall (WAF) Options section.

5.2 Historical Graphs

The Historical Graphs screen provides a graphical representation of the LoadMaster statistics. These configurable graphs provide a visual indication of the traffic that is being processed by the LoadMaster.

There are graphs for the network activity on each interface. There is also an option to view graphs for the overall and individual Virtual Services and the overall and individual Real Servers. 

The time granularity can be specified by selecting one of the hour, day, month, quarter or year options.

In the case of the network activity on the interface graphs, you can choose which type of measurement unit you wish to use by selecting one of the Packet, Bits or Bytes options.

For the Virtual Services and Real Servers graphs you can choose which type of measurement unit you wish to use by selecting one of the Connections, Bits or Bytes options.

You can configure which Virtual Service statistics are being displayed by clicking the configuration icon: Historical Graphs.png in the Virtual Services panel. This opens the Virtual Services configuration  window.

Historical Graphs_1.png

From here, Virtual Services can be added or removed from the statistics display.

You can disable these graphs by disabling the Enable Historical Graphs check box in the WUI Settings screen.

A maximum of five Virtual Services can be displayed at the same time.

To close the dialog and apply any changes, please ensure to click the Historical Graphs_2.png button within the window itself.

Historical Graphs_3.png

You can configure which Real Server statistics are being displayed by clicking the configuration icon, Historical Graphs.png in the Real Servers panel. This opens the Real Servers configuration dialog in a separate window.

From here, Real Servers can be added or removed from the statistics display.

A maximum of five Real Servers can be displayed at the same time.

To close the dialog and apply any changes, please ensure you click the Historical Graphs_4.png button within the window itself.

By default, only the statistics for the Virtual Services and Real Servers displayed on the Statistics page are gathered and stored. To view statistics for all Virtual Services and Real Servers, enable the Collect All Statistics option in System Configuration > Miscellaneous Options > WUI Settings.

This option is disabled by default because collecting statistics for a large number of Virtual Services and Real Servers can cause CPU utilization to become very high.

The graphs in the LoadMaster WUI are auto-scaling and are shown using SI magnitude units. The graph will show the prefix of the scaling factor used so the absolute value can be calculated if needed.

The possible scaling factors and their prefixes are listed in the table below.

Symbol

Prefix

Factor

P

peta

10^15

T

tera

10^12

G

giga

10^9

M

mega

10^6

k

kilo

10^3

m

milli

10^(-3)

µ

micro

10^(-6)

To calculate the absolute “real” value, take the value shown in the graph and multiply it by the scaling value.

Example

A value of 200 is shown in the connections per second graph with a scaling factor of “m”. As listed in the table above, “m” stands for “milli”. Therefore, to find the absolute value of connections per second for that time – the value of 200 needs to be multiplied by a factor of 10^(-3):

10^(-3) = 0.001

200 x 0.001 = 0.2 connections per second

This calculation shows that there is less than one connection per second and, due to the fact that the connection rate is so low, if the graph shows the absolute number of connections it will just be a straight line at zero and offers no useful information.

6 SDN Statistics

To view the SDN statistics, go to Statistics > SDN Statistics in the main menu of the LoadMaster WUI.

SDN Statistics.png

The Name, Version and Credentials will be displayed if the LoadMaster has successfully connected to the SDN Controller.

Statistics section

Statistics will not be displayed unless the SDN Controller has been added and is communicating with the LoadMaster. If the Name, Version and Credentials are not displaying it means that the LoadMaster is not connected to the SDN Controller. This could mean that the configuration is not correct, or the SDN Controller is down.

Two types of statistics are displayed on this screen - network traffic and adaptive parameters:

Network traffic - this can display the number of bits and bytes transferred per second for each of the Real Servers. The maximum, average and minimum number of bits/bytes per second are shown.

Adaptive parameters - this displays the adaptive value (ctrl) and the weight. As the adaptive value goes up, the weight of the Real Server goes down.

6.1 Device Information

Device Information.png

Information about switches on a controller which has OpenFlow enabled can be viewed by clicking the device info button.

Device Information_1.png

Further information can be seen by clicking the plus (+) button to expand each of the devices.

6.1.1 Path Information

Path information can be viewed by clicking the path info button.

The LoadMaster and the SDN controller need to be directly connected in order for the path information to be displayed.

To view a graphical representation of the path, click the => or <= icon in the Dir column for the relevant path.

Path Information.png

This screen will display the LoadMaster, Real Server and any switches in between. The LoadMaster and Real Server are represented in brown. The LoadMaster is at the top and the Real Server is at the bottom.

The switches are represented in blue. The switch name will appear in the blue boxes if the SDN Controller picks it up.

The Data Path Identifier (DPID) of each switch on the network will be displayed on the right of the switches. The DPID is how the controller identifies the different switches.

The Media Access Control (MAC) address of the LoadMaster and Real Server will be displayed to the right of those devices. The IP address of the LoadMaster and Real Server will also be displayed on the left.

The colour of the paths are explained below:

Light green: Traffic is idle and the link is healthy.

Red: The path is congested with traffic.

Grey: The path between the LoadMaster and initial switch will be shown as grey.

So, in the example screenshot above - the path between the Path2 and Switch2 switches is healthy but the paths between Switch2 and Switch1 and the Real Server are congested.

The colour of the path may change as the path gets more or less congested. There is an array of red colours that can be displayed - the darker the red colour is, the more congestion is on the path.

7 Real Servers

Real Servers_2.png

This screen shows the current status of the Real Servers and gives the option to Disable or Enable each Real Server. Each Real Server has corresponding buttons, and pressing one button will take an online server offline, and vice-versa. The user can also Enable or Disable multiple Real Servers at the same time by selecting the Real Servers that they want to perform the operation on, and clicking the relevant button at the bottom. The status can be Enabled (Green), Disabled (Red) or Partial (Yellow) – meaning the Real Server is enabled in one Virtual Service.

Caution

Disabling a Real Server will disable it for all Virtual Services configured to use it.  If it is the only Real Server available, i.e. the last one, the Virtual Service will effectively be down and not pass any traffic.

8 Rules & Checking

8.1  Content Rules

8.1.1 Content Matching Rules

Content Matching Rules.png

This screen shows rules that have been configured and gives the option to Modify or Delete.

To define a new rule, click the Create New button. You must give the rule a name.

Rule names must be alphanumeric, unique and start with an alpha character. They are case sensitive, thus two different rules can exist in the form "Rule1" and “rule1".  Giving a rule an existing name will overwrite the rule of that exact name. It is not possible to name a content rule default.

The options that are available depend on the Rule Type that you select. The available rules are as follows:

Rule Types:

Content Matching: matches the content of the header or body

Add Header: adds a header according to the rule

Delete Header: deletes the header according to the rule

Replace Header: replaces the header according to the rule

Modify URL: changes the URL according to the rule

For further information on configuring rules, please refer to the Content Rules, Feature Description document.

8.1.2 Content Matching

When the Rule Type selected is Content Matching the following describes the options available.

Content Matching.png

Rule Name

The name of the rule.

Match Type:

Regular Expression: compares the header to the rule

Prefix: compares the prefix of the header according to the rule

Postfix: compares the postfix of the header according to the rule

Header Field

The header field name must be matched. If no header field name is set, the default is to match the string within the URL.

Rules can be matched based on the Source IP of the client by entering src-ip within the Header Field text box. The header field will be populated by the source IP of the client.

Similarly, rules can also be matched based on the HTTP Method used, for example GET, POST or HEAD. The methods that are to be matched should be written in uppercase.

The body of a request can also be matched by typing body in the Header Field text box.

Match String

Input the pattern that is to be matched. Both Regular Expressions and PCRE are supported. The maximum number of characters allowed is 250.

For further information on Regular Expressions and PCRE, please refer to the Content Rules, Feature Description document.

Negation

Invert the sense of the match.

Ignore Case

Ignore case when comparing strings.

Include Host in URL

Prepend the hostname to request URL before performing the match.

Include Query in URL

Append the query string to the URL before performing a match.

Fail On Match

If this rule is matched, then always fail to connect.

Perform If Flag Set

Only try to execute this rule if the specified flag is set.

Set Flag If Matched

If the rule is successfully matched, set the specified flag.

Using the Perform If Flag Set and Set Flag If Matched options, it is possible to make rules dependent on each other, i.e. only execute a particular rule if another rule has been successfully matched. For more detailed instructions on ‘chaining’ rules, please refer to the Content Rules, Feature Description document.

8.1.3 Add Header

When the Rule Type selected is Add Header the following describes the options available.

Add Header.png

Rule Name

This is a text box to enter the name of the rule.

Header Field to be Added

This is a text box to enter the name of the header field to be added.

Value of Header Field to be Added

This is for a textbox to enter the value of the header field to be added.

Perform If Flag Set

Only execute this rule if the specified flag is set.

The flag is set by a different rule. For further information on flags please refer to the Content Matching section.

8.1.4 Delete Header

When the Rule Type selected is Delete Header the following describes the options available.

Delete Header.png

Rule Name

This is a textbox to enter the name of the rule.

Header Field to be Deleted

This is for a text box to enter the name of the header field to be deleted.

Perform If Flag Set

Only execute this rule if the specified flag is set.

The flag will have been set by a different rule. For a more detailed explanation of flags please refer to the Content Matching section.

8.1.5 Replace Header

When the Rule Type selected is Replace Header the following describes the options available.

Replace Header.png

Rule Name

This is for a textbox to enter the name of the rule.

Header Field

This is for a textbox to enter the header name field where the substitution should take place.

Match String

The pattern that is to be matched.

Value of Header Field to be replaced

This is for a textbox to enter the value of the header field to be replaced.

Perform If Flag Set

Only execute this rule if the specified flag is set.

The flag is set by a different rule. For a more detailed explanation of flags please refer to the Content Matching section.

8.1.6 Modify URL

When the Rule Type selected is Modify URL the following describes the options available.

Modify URL.png

Rule Name

This is for a textbox to enter the name of the rule.

Match String

This is a textbox to enter the pattern that is to be matched.

Modified URL

This is a textbox to enter the URL that is to be modified.

Perform If Flag Set

Only execute this rule if the specified flag is set.

The flag is set by a different rule. For a more detailed explanation of flags please refer to the Content Matching section.

8.1.7 Header Modification

For separate, detailed documentation on Header Modification, please refer to the Header Modification Guide, Technical Note.

8.2 Check Parameters

To access the Check Parameters screen, go to Rules & Checking > Check Parameters in the main menu of the LoadMaster WUI. The Check Parameters screen has two sections - Service Check Parameters and either Adaptive Parameters or SDN Adaptive Parameters, depending on the Scheduling Method selected in the Virtual Services. If the Scheduling Method is set to resource based (adaptive), the Adaptive Parameters section is displayed. If the Scheduling Method is set to resource based (SDN adaptive), the SDN Adaptive Parameters section is displayed.

Refer to the relevant section below to find out more information.

8.2.1 Service (Health) Check Parameters

 The LoadMaster utilizes Layer 3, Layer 4 and Layer 7 health checks to monitor the availability of the Real Servers and the Virtual Services.

Service Health Check Parameters.png

Check Interval(sec)

With this field you can specify the number of seconds that will pass between consecutive checks. The recommended value is 9 seconds.

Connect Timeout (sec)

The HTTP request has two steps: contact the server, and then retrieve the file. A timeout can be specified for each step, i.e. how long to wait for a connection, how long to wait for a response. A good value for both is 3 seconds.

Retry Count

This specifies the number of retry attempts the check will make before it determines that the server is not functioning. A value of 1 or less disables retries.

8.2.2 Adaptive Parameters

Adaptive Parameters.png

Adaptive Interval (sec)

This is the interval, in seconds, at which the LoadMaster checks the load on the servers. A low value means the LoadMaster is very sensitive to load, but this comes at a cost of extra load on the LoadMaster itself. 7 seconds is a good starting value. This value must not be less than the HTTP checking interval.

Adaptive URL

The Adaptive method retrieves load information from the servers via HTTP inquiry. This URL specifies the resource where the load information of the servers is stored. This resource can be either a file or program (for example Adaptive Agent) that delivers this information. The standard location is /load. It is the servers’ job to provide the current load data in this file in ASCII format. In doing so, the following must be considered:

An ASCII file containing a value in the range of 0 to 100 in the first line where: 0=idle and 100=overloaded. As the number increases, that is, the server becomes more heavily loaded, the LoadMaster will pass less traffic to that server.  Hence, it ‘adapts’ to the server loading.

If the server becomes 101% or 102% loaded, a message is added to the logs.

The file is set to "/load" by default.

The file must be accessible via HTTP.

The URL must be the same for all servers that are to be supported by the adaptive method.

 This feature is not only of interest for HTTP-based Virtual Services, but for all Services. HTTP is merely used as the transport method for extracting the application-specific load information from the Real Server.

Port

This value specifies the port number of the HTTP daemon on the servers. The default value is 80.

Min. Control Variable Value (%)

This value specifies a threshold below which the balancer will switch to static weight-based scheduling, that is, normal Weighted Round Robin. The value is a percentage of the maximum load (0-50). The default is 5.

8.2.3 SDN Adaptive Parameters

SDN Adaptive Parameters.png

Adaptive Interval (sec)

When using SDN-adaptive scheduling, the SDN controller is polled to retrieve the loading values for the Real Server. This field value specifies how often this occurs.

Average over <N-Avg> Load values

Use this value to dampen fluctuations in the system.

UseMin. Control Variable Value (%)

Anything below the value set here is considered idle traffic and it does not affect the adaptive value (which is displayed on the Real Servers Statistics screen), for example - in the screenshot above anything below 5% is considered idle.

Use relative Bandwidth

Use the maximum load observed on the link as link bandwidth. KEMP recommends enabling this option.

Current max. Bandwidth values

This section displays the current received and transmitted maximum bandwidth values.

Reset values

This checkbox can be used to reset the current max. bandwidth values.

9 Certificates & Security

The sections below describe the various screens in the Certificates & Security section of the LoadMaster WUI.

9.1 SSL Certificates

The SSL certificates screen looks different depending on whether the Hardware Security Module (HSM) feature is enabled or not. To find out more about HSM, refer to the Hardware Security Module (HSM), Feature Description.

Refer to the relevant section below, depending on your settings, to find out more information about the SSL certificates screen.

9.1.1 HSM Not Enabled

HSM Not Enabled.png

Shown above is the Manage Certificates screen where:

Import Certificate – to import the certificate with a chosen filename.

Add Intermediate – refer to the Intermediate Certificates section for further information.

Identifier – is the name given to the certificate at the time it was created.

Common Name(s) – is the FQDN (Fully Qualified Domain Name) for the site.

Virtual Services – the Virtual Service with which the certificate is associated.

Assignment – lists of available and assigned Virtual Services

Operations –

New CSR – generates a new Certificate Signing Request (CSR) based on the current certificate.

If the certificate has Subject Alternative Names (SANs), generating a CSR in this way will not add the SANs. Instead, generate the CSR manually. For further information on this, refer to the Generate CSR (Certificate Signing Request) section.

Replace Certificate – updates or replaces the certificate stored in this file.

Delete Certificate – deletes the relevant certificate.

Reencryption Usage – display the Virtual Services that are using this certificate as a client certificate when re-encrypting.

Administrative Certificates – the certificate you want to use, if any, for the administrative interface.

TPS Performance will vary based on key length.  Larger keys will reduce performance.

9.1.2 HSM Enabled

Private Key Identifier

When HSM is enabled, the Generate CSR option moves from the main menu of the LoadMaster to the Manage Certificates screen.

Enter a recognizable name for the private key on the LoadMaster and click Generate CSR. The fields on the generate CSR screen are the same as the ones described in the Generate CSR (Certificate Signing Request) section, except that the Use 2048 bit key field is not included.

Add Intermediate – refer to the Intermediate Certificates section for further information.

Private Key - this column displays the private key name.

Common Name(s) – is the FQDN (Fully Qualified Domain Name) for the site.

Virtual Services – the Virtual Service with which the certificate is associated.

Assignment – lists of available and assigned Virtual Services

Operations –

Import Certificate – import the certificate associated with this key

Delete Key – delete this private key and/or certificate

Show Reencrypt Certs – display the re-encrypt certificates

9.2 Intermediate Certificates

Intermediate Certificates.png

This screen shows a list of the installed intermediate certificates and the name assigned to them.

Intermediate Certificates_1.png

If you already have a certificate, or you have received one from a CSR, you can install the certificate by clicking the Choose File button. Navigate to and select the certificate and then enter the desired Certificate Name. The name can only contain alpha characters with a maximum of 32 characters.

Uploading several consecutive intermediate certificates within a single piece of text, as practiced by some certificate vendors such as GoDaddy, is allowed. The uploaded file is split into the individual certificates.

9.3 Generate CSR (Certificate Signing Request)

If you do not have a certificate, you may complete the Certificate Signing Request (CSR) from and click the Create CSR button. CSRs generated by the LoadMaster use SHA256.

Generate CSR Certificate Signing.png

2 Letter Country Code (ex. US)

The 2 letter country code that should be included in the certificate, for example US should be entered for the United States.

State/Province (Entire Name – New York, not NY)

The state which should be included in the certificate. Enter the full name here, for example New York, not NY.

City

The name of the city that should be included in the certificate.

Company

The name of the company which should be included in the certificate.

Organization (e.g., Marketing,Finance,Sales)

The department or organizational unit that should be included in the certificate.

Common Name

The Fully Qualified Domain Name (FQDN) for your web server.

Email Address

The email address of the responsible person or organization that should be contacted regarding this certificate.

SAN/UCC Names

A space-separated list of alternate names.

Alter clicking the Create CSR button, the following screen appears:

Generate CSR Certificate Signing_1.png

The top part of the screen should be copied and pasted into a plain text file and sent to the Certificate Authority of your choice. They will validate the information and return a validated certificate.

The lower part of the screen is your private key and should be kept in a safe place. This key should not be disseminated as you will need it to use the certificate.  Copy and paste the private key into a plain text file (do not use an application such as Microsoft Word) and keep the file safe.

9.4 Backup/Restore Certs

This screen will be different depending on whether HSM has been enabled or not. Refer to the relevant section below, depending on the LoadMaster configuration.

9.4.1 HSM Not Enabled

HSM Not Enabled_1.png

Backup all VIP and Intermediate Certificates: When backing up certificates, you will be prompted to enter a mandatory passphrase (password) twice. The parameters of the passphrase are that it must be alpha-numeric and it is case sensitive with a maximum of 64 characters.  

Caution

This passphrase is a mandatory requirement to restore a certificate. A certificate cannot be restored without the passphrase. If it is forgotten, there is no way to restore the certificate.

Backup File: select the certificate backup file

Which Certificates: select which certificates you wish to restore

Passphrase: enter the passphrase associated with the certificate backup file

9.4.2 HSM Enabled

Backup Intermediate Certificates: When backing up certificates, enter a mandatory passphrase (password) twice. The parameters of the passphrase are that it must be alpha-numeric and it is case sensitive with a maximum of 64 characters.  

Caution

This passphrase is a mandatory requirement to restore a certificate. A certificate cannot be restored without the passphrase. If it is forgotten, there is no way to restore the certificate.

Intermediate Certificate Backup File: select the intermediate certificate backup file

Passphrase: enter the passphrase associated with the certificate backup file

9.5 Cipher Sets

Cipher Sets.png

Cipher Set

Select the cipher set to view/modify.

The system-defined cipher sets are as follows:

Default: The current default set of ciphers in the LoadMaster.

Default_NoRc4: The Default_NoRc4 cipher set contains the same ciphers as the default cipher set, except without the RC4 ciphers (which are considered to be insecure).

BestPractices: This is the recommended cipher set to use. This cipher set is for services that do not need backward compatibility - the ciphers provide a higher level of security. The configuration is compatible with Firefox 27, Chrome 22, IE 11, Opera 14 and Safari 7.

Intermediate_compatibility: For services that do not need compatibility with legacy clients (mostly Windows XP), but still need to support a wide range of clients, this configuration is recommended. It is compatible with Firefox 1, Chrome 1, IE 7, Opera 5 and Safari 1.

Backward_compatibility: This is the old cipher suite that works with clients back to Windows XP/IE6. This should be used as a last resort only.

WUI: This is the cipher set recommended to be used as the WUI cipher set. The WUI cipher set can be selected in the Admin WUI Access screen. For further information, refer to the Admin WUI Access section.

FIPS: Ciphers which conform to FIPS (Federal Information Processing Standards).

Legacy: This is the set of ciphers that were available on the old LoadMaster firmware (v7.0-10) before OpenSSL was updated.

Refer to the SSL Accelerated Services, Feature Description for a full list of the ciphers supported by the LoadMaster, and a breakdown of what ciphers are in each of the system-defined cipher sets.

KEMP Technologies can change the contents of these cipher sets as required based on the best available information.

Two lists are displayed – Available Ciphers and Assigned Ciphers. These lists can be filtered by typing some text into the Filter text boxes provided. iThe Filter text boxes will only allow you to enter valid text which is contained in the cipher names, for example ECDHE. If invalid text is entered, the text box will turn red and the invalid text is deleted.

Ciphers can be dragged and dropped to/from the Available and Assigned lists as needed. Ciphers which are already assigned will appear greyed out in the Available Ciphers list.

Changes cannot be made to a preconfigured cipher set. However, you can start with a preconfigured cipher set – make any changes as needed and then save the cipher set with a new custom name. Enter the new name in the Save as text box and click the Save button. Custom cipher sets can be used across different Virtual Services and can be assigned as the WUI cipher set.

It is not possible to delete preconfigured cipher sets. However, custom cipher sets can be deleted by selecting the relevant custom cipher set and clicking the Delete Cipher set button.

9.6 Remote Access

The sections below describe the different areas within the Remote Access screen in the LoadMaster WUI.

9.6.1 Administrator Access

Administrator Access.png

Allow Remote SSH Access

You can limit the network from which clients can connect to the SSH administrative interface on LoadMaster.

Using

Specify which addresses that remote administrative SSH access to the LoadMaster is allowed.

Port

Specify the port used to access the LoadMaster via the SSH protocol.

SSH Pre-Auth Banner

Set the SSH pre-authentication banner, which is displayed before the login prompt when logging in via SSH. This field accepts up to 5,000 characters.

Allow Web Administrative Access

Selecting this check box allows administrative web access to the LoadMaster. Disabling this option will stop access upon the next reboot. Click Set Administrative Access to apply any changes to this field.

Disabling web access is not recommended.

Using0

Specify the addresses that administrative web access is to be permitted. Click Set Administrative Access to apply any changes to this field.

Port

Specify the port used to access the administrative web interface. Click Set Administrative Access to apply any changes to this field.

Admin Default Gateway

When administering the LoadMaster from a non-default interface, this option allows the User to specify a different default gateway for administrative traffic only. Click Set Administrative Access to apply any changes to this field.

Allow Multi Interface Access

Enabling this option allows the WUI to be accessed from multiple interfaces. When this option is enabled, a new option appears in each of the interface screens (System Configuration > eth<n>) called Allow Administrative WUI Access. When both of these options are enabled, the WUI can be accessed from the IP address of the relevant interface(s) and any Additional addresses configured for that interface. Click Set Administrative Access to apply any changes to this field.

The certificate used by default to secure WUI connections specifies the initial WUI IP address, and so will not work for WUI connections on other interfaces. If you enable the WUI on multiple interfaces, you will need to install a wildcard certificate for the WUI. For more information on certificates, refer to the SSL Accelerated Services, Feature Description.

Enabling the WUI on multiple interfaces can have a performance impact on the system. There is a maximum of 64 network interfaces that can be tracked. There are a maximum of 1024 total addresses where the system will listen on.

RADIUS Server

Here you can enter the address of the RADIUS server that is to be used to validate user access to the LoadMaster. To use a RADIUS server, you have to specify the Shared Secret.

A Shared Secret is a text string that serves as a password between the LoadMaster and the RADIUS server.

The Revalidation Interval specifies how often a user should be revalidated by the RADIUS server.

RADIUS Server Configuration

To configure RADIUS to work correctly with the LoadMaster, authentication must be configured on the RADIUS server and the RADIUS Reply-Message must be mapped to LoadMaster permissions.

The Reply-Message values correspond to LoadMaster permissions as shown in the table below.

Reply-Message

LoadMaster Permission

real

Real Servers

vs

Virtual Services

rules

Rules

backup

System Backup

certs

Certificate Creation

cert3

Intermediate Certificates

certbackup

Certificate Backup

users

User Administration

geo

GEO Configuration

The values in the Reply-Message should map to the user permissions page in the WUI as per Figure 119, with the exception of “All Permissions”:

Administrator Access_1.png

To configure the Linux FreeRADIUS server, please insert the text below into the /etc/freeradius/users file in the sections indicated within the file. The example below is to configure permissions for the user ‘LMUSER’.

LMUSER Cleartext-Password := "1fourall"

Reply-Message = "real,vs,rules,backup,certs,cert3,certbackup,users"

The /etc/freeradius/clients.conf file must also be configured to include the LoadMaster IP address. This file lists the IP addresses that are allowed to contact RADIUS.

When Session Management is enabled, the RADIUS Server options are not available within this screen. Please refer to the WUI Authentication and Authorization section for further information on how to configure RADIUS Server when Session Management is enabled.

Enable API Interface

Enables/disables the RESTful Application Program Interface (API).

Admin Login Method

This option will only appear if Session Management is enabled. For further information on Session Management, refer to the Admin WUI Access section or the User Management, Feature Description.

Specify the login option for access to the LoadMaster WUI. The following options are available:

Password Only Access (default): This option provides access using the username and password only – there is no access via client certificates.

Password or Client certificate: The user can log in using either the username/password or using a valid client certificate. If a valid client certificate is in place, the username and password is not required.
The client will be asked for a certificate. If a client certificate is supplied, the LoadMaster will check for a match. The LoadMaster checks if the certificate is a match with one of the local certificates, or checks if the Subject Alternative Name (SAN) or Common Name (CN) of the certificate is a match. The SAN is used in preference to the CN when performing a match. If there is a match, the user is allowed access to the LoadMaster. This works both via the API and user interface.
An invalid certificate will not allow access.
If no client certificate is supplied, the LoadMaster will expect that a username and password is supplied (for the API) or will ask the user to enter a password via the standard WUI login page.

Client certificate required: Access is only allowed via the use of a client certificate. It is not possible to log in using the username and password. SSH access is not affected by this (only the bal user can log in via SSH).

Client certificate required (Verify via OCSP): This is the same as the Client certificate required option, but the client certificate is verified via an OCSP service. The OCSP Server Settings must be configured in order for this to work. For further information on the OCSP Server Settings, refer to the Cipher Sets section.

Some points to note regarding the client certificate methods are below:

The bal user does not have a client certificate. Therefore, it is not possible to log into the LoadMaster as bal using the Client certificate required methods. However, a non-bal user can be created and granted All Permissions. This will allow the same functionality as the bal user.

There is no log out option for users that are logged in to the WUI using client certificates, as it is not possible to log out (if the user did log out the next access would automatically log them back in again). The session is terminated when the page is closed, or when the browser is restarted.

For further information on client certificate WUI authentication, including step-by-step instructions on how to configure it, please refer to the User Management, Feature Description.

Enable Software FIPS 140-2 level 1 Mode

FIPS mode cannot be enabled if Session Management is disabled. For further information on Session Management, refer to the Admin WUI Access section.

Switch to FIPS 140-2 level 1 certified mode for this LoadMaster. The LoadMaster must be rebooted to activate.

A number of warnings will appear before enabling FIPS. If FIPS is enabled on a LoadMaster, it cannot easily be disabled. If FIPS has been enabled and you want to disable it, please contact KEMP Support.

Administrator Access_2.png

When a LoadMaster is in FIPS level 1 mode - FIPS-1 will appear in the top-right of the LoadMaster WUI.

FIPS level 1 has a different set of ciphers to a non-FIPS LoadMaster. There is a Default cipher set and there are no other system-defined cipher sets to choose from.

Allow Update Checks

Allow the LoadMaster to regularly check the KEMP website for new software versions.

9.6.2 GEO Settings

GEO Settings.png

Remote GEO LoadMaster Access

Set the addresses of the GEO LoadMasters that can retrieve service status information from this LoadMaster. The addresses are space separated. When in HA mode, only the shared address needs to be entered.

GEO LoadMaster Partners

GEO functionality comes as part of the GSLB Feature Pack and is enabled based on the license that has been applied to the LoadMaster. If you would like to get the GSLB Feature pack, contact KEMP to upgrade your license.

Set the addresses of the partner GEO LoadMasters. The addresses are space separated. These GEO LoadMasters will keep their DNS configurations in sync.

Before partnering GEO LoadMasters, a backup should be taken of the relevant GEO LoadMaster which has the correct/preferred configuration. This backup should then be restored to the other LoadMasters that will be partnered with the original LoadMaster. For more information and step-by-step instructions, refer to the GEO, Feature Description.

Up to 64 GEO HA partner addresses can be added.

GEO LoadMaster Port

The port over which GEO LoadMasters will use to communicate with this LoadMaster unit.

GEO update interface

Specify the GEO interface in which the SSH partner tunnel is created. This is the interface that the GEO partners will communicate through.

9.6.3 GEO Partners Status

This section is only visible when GEO partners have been set.

GEO Partners Status.png

A GEO partner status of Green indicates the two partners can see each other.

A GEO partner status of Red indicates the LoadMasters cannot communicate. The reasons for this include (among other possibilities); one of the partners is powered down, there may be a power outage or a cable may be disconnected.

If there is a failure to update the GEO partner, the logs display an error message saying the GEO update to the partner failed. The message displays the IP address of the partner.

9.6.4 WUI Authentication and Authorization

WUI Authorization Options

Click the WUI Authorization Options button on the Remote Access screen to display the WUI Authentication and Authorization screen. This option is only available when Session Management is enabled.

WUI Authentication and Authorization.png

The WUI Authentication and Authorization screen enables the administration of the available authentication (login) and authorization (allowed permissions) options.

Authentication

Users must be authenticated before logging on to the LoadMaster. The LoadMaster allows authentication of users to be performed using the RADIUS and LDAP authentication methods as well as Local User authentication.

When all authentication methods are selected, the LoadMaster attempts to authenticate users using the authentication methods in the following order:

1. RADIUS

2. LDAP

3. Local Users

For example, if the RADIUS server is not available then the LDAP server is used. If the LDAP server is also not available, then Local User authentication methods are used.

If neither RADIUS nor LDAP authentication methods are selected, then the Local User authentication method is selected by default.

Authorization

LoadMaster allows the users to be authorized by either RADIUS or via Local User authorization. The user’s authorization decides what level of permissions the user has and what functions on the LoadMaster they are allowed to perform.

You can only use the RADIUS authorization method if you are using the RADIUS authentication method.

When both authorization methods are selected, the LoadMaster initially attempts to authorize the user using RADIUS. If this authorization method is not available, the LoadMaster attempts to authorize the user using the Local User authorization. Authorization using LDAP is not supported.

If the RADIUS authorization method is not selected, then the Local User authorization method is selected by default.

Below is an example of the configuration that needs to be on the RADIUS server for authorization to work.

The below example is for Linux only.

The Reply-Message should be self-explanatory on what permission it’s allowing. They should match up to the WUI’s user permissions page, with the exception of “All Permissions”:

LMUSER Cleartext-Password := "1fourall"

Reply-Message = "real,vs,rules,backup,certs,cert3,certbackup,users" The bal user is always authenticated and authorized using the Local User authentication and authorization methods.

RADIUS Server Configuration

RADIUS Server

The IP address and Port of the RADIUS Server that is to be used to authenticate user WUI access to the LoadMaster.

Shared Secret

This input field is for the Shared Secret of the RADUS Server.

A Shared Secret is a text string that serves as a password between the LoadMaster and the RADIUS server.

Backup RADIUS Server

The IP address and Port of the backup RADIUS Server that is to be used to authenticate user WUI access to the LoadMaster. This server will be used in case of failure of the main RADIUS Server.

Backup Shared Secret

This text box is to enter the Shared Secret of the backup RADUS Server.

Revalidation Interval

Specifies how often a user should be revalidated by the RADIUS server.

LDAP Server Configuration

LDAP Server

The IP address and Port of the LDAP Server that is to be used to authenticate user WUI access to the LoadMaster.

Backup LDAP Server

The IP address and Port of the backup LDAP Server that is to be used to authenticate user WUI access to the LoadMaster. This server will be used in case of failure of the main LDAP Server.

LDAP Protocol

Select the transport protocol used to communicate with the LDAP server.

The available options are Not encrypted, StartTLS and LDAPS.

Revalidation Interval

Specifies how often a user should be revalidated by the LDAP server.

Local Users Configuration

Use ONLY if other AAA services fail

When selected, the Local Users authentication and authorization methods are used only if the RADIUS and LDAP authentication and authorization methods fail.

Test AAA for User

To test a user’s credentials, enter their username and password in the Username and Password fields and click the Test User button.

A message appears to inform you whether the user is validated or not. This is a useful utility to check a user’s credentials without having to log in or out.

9.7 Admin WUI Access

Admin WUI Access.png

Supported TLS Protocols

Checkboxes are provided here which can be used to specify whether or not it is possible to connect to the LoadMaster WUI using the following protocols; SSLv3, TLS1.0, TLS1.1 or TLS1.2. TLS1.1 and TLS1.2 are enabled by default. It is not recommended to only have SSLv3 selected because SSLv3 is only supported by some old browsers. When connecting to the WUI via a web browser, the highest security protocol which is mutually supported by both the browser and the WUI will be used.

If FIPS mode is enabled, the only available options are TLS1.1 and TLS1.2.

WUI Cipher set

Select the relevant cipher set to use for WUI access. For information on each of the cipher sets available, refer to the Cipher Sets section.

WUI Session Management

Admin WUI Access_1.png

Session management is enabled by default on all LoadMasters initially deployed with firmware version 7.1.35 or above.

The level of user permissions determine what WUI Session Management fields can be seen and modified. Refer to the table below for a breakdown of permissions.

Control

Bal user

User with ‘All Permissions’

User with ‘User Administration’ permissions

All other users

Session Management

Modify

View

View

None

Require Basic Authentication

Modify

View

View

None

Basic Authentication Password

Modify

View

View

None

Failed Login Attempts

Modify

Modify

View

None

Idle Session Timeout

Modify

Modify

View

None

Limit Concurrent Logins

Modify

Modify

View

 

Pre-Auth Click Through Banner

Modify

Modify

View

None

Currently Active Users

Modify

Modify

View

None

Currently Blocked Users

Modify

Modify

View

None

When using WUI Session Management, it is possible to use one or two steps of authentication.

If Enable Session Management check box is ticked and Require Basic Authentication is disabled, the user only needs to log in using their local username and password. Users are not prompted to log in using the bal or user logins.

If the Enable Session Management and Require Basic Authentication check boxes are both selected, there are two levels of authentication enforced in order to access the LoadMaster WUI. The initial level is Basic Authentication where users log in using the bal or user logins, which are default usernames defined by the system.

The purpose of the user user is so that administrators can provide credentials of the user user to people, instead of providing the bal credentials. The password for the user user, can be set by configuring the Basic Authentication Password text box. Only the bal user is permitted to set the Basic Authentication Password.

Once logged in via Basic Authentication, the user then must log in using their local username and password to begin the session.

Enable Session Management

Selecting the Enable Session Management check box enables the WUI Session Management functionality. This will force all users to log in to the session using their normal credentials.

When this check box is checked, the user is required to login in order to continue to use the LoadMaster.

LDAP users need to login using the full domain name. For example; an LDAP username should be test@kemp.com and not just test.

Admin WUI Access_2.png

After a user has logged in, they may log out by clicking the Logout button, Admin WUI Access_3.png, in the top right-hand corner of the screen.

Once the WUI Session Management functionality is enabled, all the WUI Session Management options appear.

Require Basic Authentication

If WUI Session Management and Basic Authentication are both enabled, there are two levels of authentication enforced in order to access the LoadMaster WUI. The initial level is Basic Authentication where users log in using the bal or user logins, which are default usernames defined by the system.

Once logged in via Basic Authentication, the user then must log in using their local username and password to begin the session.

Basic Authentication Password

The Basic Authentication password for the user login can be set by typing the password into the Basic Authentication Password text box and clicking the Set Basic Password button.

The password needs to be at least 8 characters long and should be a mix of alpha and numeric characters. If the password is considered to be too weak, a message appears asking you to enter a new password.

Only the bal user is permitted to set the Basic Authentication password.

Failed Login Attempts

The number of times that a user can fail to login correctly before they are blocked can be specified within this text box. The valid values that may be entered are numbers between 1 and 999.

If a user is blocked, only the bal user or other users with All Permissions set can unblock a blocked user.

If the bal user is blocked, there is a ‘cool-down’ period of ten minutes before the bal user can login again.

Idle Session Timeout

The length of time (in seconds) a user can be idle (no activity recorded) before they are logged out of the session. The valid values that may be entered are numbers between 60 and 86400 (between one minute and 24 hours).

Limit Concurrent Logins

This option gives LoadMaster administrators the ability to limit the number of logins a single user can have to the LoadMaster WUI at any one time.

The values which can be selected range from 0 – 9.

A value of 0 allows an unlimited number of logins.

The value entered represents the total number and is inclusive of any bal user logins.

Pre-Auth Click Through Banner

Set the pre-authentication click through banner which will be displayed before the LoadMaster WUI login page. This field can contain plain text or HTML code. The field cannot contain JavaScript. This field accepts up to 5,000 characters.

Active and Blocked Users

Only the bal user or users with ‘All Permissions’ set can use this functionality. Users with ‘User Administration’ permissions set can view the screen but all buttons and input fields are greyed out. All other users cannot view this portion of the screen.

Admin WUI Access_4.png

Currently Active Users

The user name and login time of all users logged into the LoadMaster are listed within this section.

To immediately log out a user and force them to log back into the system, click the Force logout button.

To immediately log out a user and to block them from being able to log in to the system, click the Block user button. The user will not be able to log back in to the system until they are unblocked or until the LoadMaster reboots. Clicking the Block user button does not force the user to log off, to do this, click the Force logout button.

If a user exits the browser without logging off, that session will remain open in the currently active users list until the timeout has reached. If the same user logs in again, before the timeout is reached, it would be within a separate session.

Currently Blocked Users

The user name and login time of when the user was blocked are listed within this section.

To unblock a user to allow them to login to the system, click the Unblock button.

9.8 OCSP Configuration

OCSP Configuration.png

OCSP Server

The address of the OCSP server.

OCSP Server Port

The port of the OCSP server.

OCSP URL

The URL to access on the OCSP server.

Use SSL

Select this to use SSL to connect to the OCSP server.

Allow Access on Server Failure

Treat an OCSP server connection failure or timeout as if the OCSP server had returned a valid response, i.e. treat the client certificate as valid.

9.9 HSM Configuration

HSM Configuration.png

Please select a HSM subsystem

This drop-down menu has two options:

No HSM Support

Safenet Luna HSM

To use HSM, select Safenet Luna HSM and configure the settings.

HSM Configuration_1.png

Address of the Safenet HSM

Enter the IP address of the Safenet unit to be used.

Upload the CA certificate

Upload the certificate that has been downloaded from the HSM.

Generate the HSM Client Certificate

Generate the local client certificate that is to be uploaded to the HSM. The name specified here should be the LoadMaster FQDN name. This name should be used in the client register command on the HSM.

Password for the HSM partition

Specify the password for the partition on the HSM so that the LoadMaster can access the HSM.

The partition password cannot be set here until the certificates have been generated.

Enable Safenet HSM

This check box can be used to enable or disable HSM.

Starting the HSM may take some time.

Disabling the HSM will cause the LoadMaster to be unable to create new SSL (HTTPS) connections and will immediately drop existing connections until another HSM is added or the certificate configuration is changed.

It is strongly recommended to only change the HSM configuration when there are no active SSL connections.

10 System Configuration

10.1 Network Setup

10.1.1 Interfaces

Describes the external network and internal network interfaces. The screen has the same information for the eth0 and eth1 Ethernet ports. The example below is for eth0 on a non–HA (High Availability) unit.  

Interfaces.png

Interface Address

Within the Interface Address (address[/prefix]) text box you can specify the Internet address of this interface.

Cluster Shared IP address

Specify the shared IP address which can be used to access the cluster. This is also used as the default source address when using Server NAT.

The clustering options will only be available on LoadMasters which have a clustering license. To add the clustering feature to your license, please contact a KEMP representative. For further information on clustering, refer to the LoadMaster Clustering, Feature Description.

Use for Cluster checks

Use this option to enable cluster health checking between the nodes. At least one interface must be enabled.

Use for Cluster Updates

Use this interface for cluster synchronization operations.

Speed

By default, the Speed of the link is automatically detected. In certain configurations, this speed is incorrect and must be forced to a specific value.

Use for Default Gateway

The Use for Default Gateway checkbox is only available if the Enable Alternate GW support is selected in the Network Options screen. If the settings being viewed are for the default interface this option will be greyed out and selected. To enable this option on another interface, go to the other interface by clicking it in the main menu on the left. Then this option is available to select.

Allow Administrative WUI Access

This option is only available when the Allow Multi Interface Access check box is enabled in Miscellaneous Options > Remote Access.

When both of these options are enabled, the WUI can be accessed from the IP address of the relevant interface, and any Additional addresses set up for that interface.

There is only one interface attached to all of these addresses, so there may be issues with this unless the certificate used is a wildcard certificate. For more information on certificates, refer to the SSL Accelerated Services, Feature Description.

There is a maximum of 64 network interfaces that can be tracked, and that there is a maximum of 1024 total addresses where the system will listen on.

Use for GEO Responses and Requests

By default, only the default gateway interface is used to listen for and respond to DNS requests. This field gives you the option to listen on additional interfaces.

This option cannot be disabled on the interface containing the default gateway. By default, this is eth0.

When this option is enabled, GEO also listens on any Additional addresses that are configured for the interface.

MTU

Within the MTU field you can specify the maximum size of Ethernet frames that will be sent from this interface. The valid range is 512 - 9216.

The valid range of 512 - 9216 may not apply to VLMs as the range will be dependent on the hardware the VLM is running on. It is advised to check your hardware restrictions.

Additional addresses

Using the Additional addresses field allows the LoadMaster to give multiple addresses to each interface, as aliases. This is sometimes referred to as a “router on a stick”. It allows both IPv4 and IPv6 addresses in standard IP+CIDR format, so this can also be used to do a mixed mode of IPv4 and IPv6 addresses on the same interface. Any of the subnets that are added here will be available for both virtual IPs and real server IPs.

HA

If the unit is part of a HA configuration, the following screen will be displayed when one of the interfaces is clicked.

Interfaces_1.png

This screen tells the user:

This is the Master machine of the pair (top-rightof the screen)

This LoadMaster is up and the paired machine is down (green and red icons)

The IP address of this LoadMaster

The HA Shared IP address. This is the IP address used to configure the pair.

The IP address of the paired machine

This interface is enabled for HA health checking

This interface is used as the Default Gateway

The speed of the link is automatically detected

Any alternate addresses on this interface

Creating a Bond/Team

Before creating a bonded interface please note the following:

You can only bond interfaces higher than the parent, so if you choose to start with port 10 then you can only add ports 11 and greater

 Bond links first if you need VLAN tagging then add VLANs after the bond has been configured

In order to add a link to a bonded interface, any IP addressing must first be removed from the link to be added

 Enabling the Active-Backup mode generally does not require switch intervention

Bonding eth0 with eth1 can lead to serious issues and is not allowed to occur

Click the Interface Bonding button to request the bond.

Confirm the bond creation by clicking the Create a bonded interface button.

Acknowledge the warning dialogs.

Using the Web User Interface (WUI) select the System Configuration > Interfaces > bndx menu option.

If you do not see the bndX interface, refresh your browser, then select the bonded interface and click the Bonded Devices button.

Select the desired bonding mode.

Add the additional interfaces to this bond.

Configure the IP and Subnet Mask on the bonded interface.

Removing a Bond/Team

Remove all VLANs on the bonded interface first; if you do not remove them they will automatically be assigned to the physical port at which the bond started.

Select the System Configuration > Interfaces > bndx menu option. If you do not see the bndX interface refresh your browser, then select the bonded interface, then click the Bonded Devices button.

Unbind each port by clicking the Unbind Port button, repeat until all ports have been removed from bond.

Once all child ports have been unbounded, you can unbond the parent port by clicking Unbond this interface button.

 Adding a VLAN

Select the interface and then select the VLAN Configuration button.

Interfaces_2.png

 Add the VLAN Id value and select the Add New VLAN menu option.

Repeat as needed. To view the VLANs, select the System Configuration > Network Setup menu option and expand the drop-down list.

 Removing a VLAN

Before removing a VLAN, please ensure that the interface is not being used for other purposes, for example as a multicast interface, WUI interface, SSH interface or a GEO interface.

 To remove a VLAN select the System Configuration > Network Setup menu option and select the appropriate VLAN ID from the drop-down list.

 Once selected, delete the IP and then click Set Address. Once the IP has been removed you will have the option to delete the VLAN, by clicking the Delete this VLAN button.

Repeat as needed. To view the VLANs select the System Configuration > Interfaces menu option and select the appropriate VLAN ID from the drop-down list.

Adding a VXLAN

Select the relevant interface and then click the VXLAN Configuration button.

Interfaces_3.png

Enter a new VXLAN Network Identifier (VNI) in the VNI text box. Enter the multicast group or remote address in the Group or Remote address text box. Click Add New VXLAN.

To modify the VXLAN, go to System Configuration > Interfaces and select the VXLAN from the drop-down list.

Interfaces_4.png

On this screen, the interface address of the VXLAN can be specified. The VXLAN can also be deleted from this screen.

If HA is enabled, HA parameters can be set in the VXLAN:

The HA Shared IP address. This is the IP address used to configure the HA pair.

The IP address of the partner machine

Specify whether or not this interface is used for HA health checking

10.1.2 Host & DNS Configuration

Host DNS Configuration.png

Set Hostname

Set the hostname of the local machine by entering the hostname in the Hostname text box and clicking the Set Hostname button. Only alphanumeric characters are allowed.

Add NameServer (IP Address)

Enter the IP address of a DNS server that will be used to resolve names locally on the LoadMaster in this field and click the Add button. A maximum of three DNS servers are allowed.

It is not possible to delete the last remaining NameServer if the DNSSEC client is enabled. The DNSSEC client can be disabled on the Host & DNS Configuration screen.

Add Search Domain

Specify the domain name that is to be prepended to requests to the DNS NameServer in this field and click the Add button. A maximum of six Search Domains are allowed.

Add/Modify Hosts for Local Resolution

These fields provide the ability to manipulate the host file from the LoadMaster WUI. Specify the IP address and the host FQDN for the entry.

Enable DNSSEC Resolver

By default, the LoadMaster DNSSEC client is disabled. Only enable this option if needed. In some circumstances, the DNSSEC validation can take a significant amount of time to fail. This can cause the LoadMaster to appear to freeze or hang.

Ticking this option will enable DNSSEC capabilities on the LoadMaster. At least one Nameserver must be added before DNSSEC can be enabled. The LoadMaster must be rebooted after changing the DNSSEC option in order to activate/deactivate the feature. Once the setting is changed, it cannot be changed again until the LoadMaster has been rebooted.

When using HA – the DNSSEC option must be configured on both devices separately.

DNSSEC works with the following utilities in the LoadMaster:

Vipdump

Ping and ping6

Syslog

SNMP

Wget

NTP

SMTP

Real Servers

Automatically Update DNS Entries

When this option is enabled, the LoadMaster will try to resolve the DNS names once every hour:

If the address is not found, or if it is the same as before – nothing is done (except a log entry is generated).

If the address is different, the Real Server entry will be updated with the new address, if possible.

If the new address is invalid for some reason, for example if it is a non-local address and the Enable Non-Local Real Servers option has been disabled, no changes are made and a log is generated.

Resolve DNS Names now

Clicking the Run Resolver Now button will force a new resolution of DNS names. The behaviour is the same as the Automatically Update DNS Entries option, except this is a manual (not an automatic) check.

10.1.3 Default Gateway

The LoadMaster requires a default gateway through which it can communicate with the Internet.

Default Gateway.png

If both IPv4 and IPv6 addresses are being used on the LoadMaster, then both an IPv4 and IPv6 Default Gateway Address are required.

IPv4 and IPv6 default gateways must be on the same interface.

10.1.4 Additional Routes

Additional Routes.png

Further routes can be added. These routes are static and the gateways must be on the same network as the LoadMaster. To segment traffic, you can also leverage the Virtual Service level default gateway. 

10.1.5 Packet Routing Filter

Packet Routing Filter.png

Packet Routing Filter

If GEO is enabled, the Packet Routing Filter is enabled by default and cannot be disabled. If GEO is disabled, the Packet Routing Filter is configurable – it can be either enabled or disabled. To disable GEO, on a LoadMaster which has GEO functionality, in the main menu, select Global Balancing and Disable GSLB.

If the filter is not activated, the LoadMaster also acts as a simple IP-forwarder.

When the filter is activated, it restricts traffic to the LoadMaster but client-to-LoadMaster access to Virtual Services is unaffected. Real Server initiated traffic that is processed on the LoadMaster with SNAT is also unaffected.

The Reject/Drop blocked packets and Restrict traffic to Interfaces fields will not be displayed if the Packet Routing Filter is disabled.

Reject/Drop blocked packets

When an IP packet is received from a host, which is blocked using the Access Control Lists (ACLs), the request is normally ignored (dropped). The LoadMaster may be configured to return an ICMP reject packet, but for security reasons it is usually best to drop any blocked packets silently.

Restrict traffic to Interfaces

This setting enforces restrictions upon routing between attached subnets.

Add Blocked Address(es)

The LoadMaster supports a “blacklist” Access Control List (ACL) system. Any host or network entered into the ACL will be blocked from accessing any service provided by the LoadMaster.

The ACL is only enabled when the Packet Filter is enabled.  The whitelist allows a specific IP address or address range access. If the address or range is part of a larger range in the blacklist, the whitelist will take precedence for the specified addresses.

If a user does not have any addresses listed in their blacklist and only has addresses listed in their whitelist, then only connections from addresses listed on the whitelist are allowed and connections from all other addresses are blocked.

This option allows a user to add or delete a host or network IP address to the Access Control List. In addition to IPv4 addresses - IPv6 addresses are allowed in the lists if the system is configured with an IPv6 address family. Using a network specifier specifies a network.

For example, specifying the address 192.168.200.0/24 in the blacklist will block all hosts on the 192.168.200 network.

A static port Virtual Service, with an access list defined to block particular traffic, will not work correctly if you also have a wildcard Virtual Service on the same IP address. The wildcard Virtual Service will accept the traffic after the static port Virtual Service denies it.

It is recommended to use a separate IP address in this case to avoid unexpected behavior resulting from this interaction.

10.1.6 VPN Management

The VPN Management link/screen will only be available if the LoadMaster is licensed for IPsec tunneling.

For further information on IPsec tunneling, including step-by-step instructions on how to set it up, refer to the IPsec Tunneling, Feature Description.

VPN Management.png

Connection Name

Specify a unique name to identify the connection.

Create

Create a uniquely identifiable connection with the specified name.

View/Modify

View or modify the configuration parameters for this connection.

Delete

Delete this connection.

All associated configuration will be permanently deleted. A connection can be deleted at any time, even if it is running.

10.1.6.1 View/Modify VPN Connection

VPN Management_1.png

When initially creating a connection, or when modifying a connection, the View/Modify VPN Connection screen appears.

Local IP Address

Set the IP address for the local side of the connection.

In non-HA mode, the Local IP Address should be the LoadMaster IP address, i.e. the IP address of the default gateway interface.

In HA-mode, the Local IP Address should be the shared IP address. This will be automatically populated if HA has already been configured. For more information on setting up tunneling in a HA configuration, refer to the next section.

Local Subnet Address

When the Local IP Address is set the Local Subnet Address text box is automatically populated. The local IP can be the only participant if applicable, given the /32 CIDR. Review the Local Subnet Address and update it if needed. Ensure to click Set Local Subnet Address to apply the setting, whether the address has been changed or not. Multiple local subnets can be specified using a comma-separated list. Up to 10 IP addresses can be specified.

Remote IP Address

Set the IP address for the remote side of the connection. In the context of an Azure endpoint, this IP address is expected to be the public-facing IP address for the Virtual Private Network (VPN) Gateway device.

Remote Subnet Address

Set the subnet for the remote side of the connection. Multiple remote subnets can be specified using a comma-separated list. Up to 10 IP addresses can be specified.

Perfect Forward Secrecy

Activate or deactivate the Perfect Forward Secrecy option.

The cloud platform being used will determine what the Perfect Forward Secrecy option should be set to. Perfect Forward Secrecy is needed for some platforms but is unsupported on others. To find out what will work with your cloud platform, refer to the IPsec Tunneling, Feature Description document.

Local ID

Identification for the local side of the connection. This may be the local IP address. This field is automatically populated with the same address as the Local IP Address if the LoadMaster is not in HA mode.

If the LoadMaster is in HA mode, the Local ID field will be automatically set to %any. This value cannot be updated when the LoadMaster is in HA mode.

Remote ID

Identification for the remote side of the connection. This may be the remote IP address.

Pre Shared Key (PSK)

Enter the pre-shared key string.

Save Secret Information

Generate and save the connection identification and secret information.

10.2  HA and Clustering

HA and Clustering.png

This section in the WUI is only called HA and Clustering if you have a LoadMaster license with clustering enabled. If you do not have clustering, this section will be called HA Parameters and you will not see the screen shown above. If clustering has been configured, this section will be called Cluster Control.

This screen describes both HA Mode and Clustering. Select the relevant option and click Confirm to continue.

Once clustering is configured, the HA mode options will be unavailable.

10.2.1 HA Mode

If you are using the LoadMaster for Azure product, refer to the the Azure HA Parameters section.

 The role of the appliance can be changed by setting the HA Mode.  If HA (First) Mode or HA (Second) Mode is selected as the HA Mode, a prompt will appear reminding to add a shared IP. Changing the HA Mode will require a reboot, so after the details are set, click the Reboot button provided. Once the LoadMaster has rebooted, the HA menu option will be available in the System Configuration section provided the role is not “Non HA Mode”.  HA will NOT work if both machines are specified the same. 

When logged into the HA cluster, use the shared IP address to view and set full functionality to the pair.  If you log into the direct IP address of either one of the devices the menu options are quite different (see menus below).  Logging into one of the LoadMaster directly is usually reserved for maintenance.

HA Mode.png

HA Mode_1.png

 

 

 

When a LoadMaster is in HA mode, the following screen appears when you select the HA Parameters menu option.

HA Mode_2.png

HA Status

At the top of the screen, next to the time, icons are shown to denote the real-time status of the LoadMaster units in the cluster. There will be an icon for each unit in the cluster. You can open the WUI for the first or second HA unit by clicking the relevant status icon.

HA Mode_3.png

The possible icons are: 

Green (with ‘A’)

HA Mode_4.png

The unit is online and operational and the HA units are correctly paired.

The ‘A’ in the middle of the square indicates that this is the master unit.

Green (without ‘A’)

HA Mode_5.png

The unit is online and operational and the HA units are correctly paired.

The absence of an ‘A’ in the middle of the square indicates that this is not the master unit.

Red/Yellow HA-red-sm

The unit is not ready to take over. It may be offline or incorrectly paired.

Blue

HA-blue-sm

The unit is pacified, i.e. it has rebooted more than 3 times in 5 minutes. In this state you can only access the machine via the direct machine WUI (not the shared WUI), and, it is not participating in any HA activity, i.e. no changes from the master will be received and it will not take over if the master fails.

Grey HA-grey-sm

Both machines are active, i.e. both are set to master, and something has gone seriously wrong. CALL KEMP support.

In HA mode each LoadMaster will have its own IP address used only for diagnostic purposes directly on the unit. The HA pair have a shared IP address over which the WUI is used to configure and manage the pair as a single entity.

Both HA1 and HA2 must be on the same subnet with the same default gateway and be in the same physical site. They must not be separated by an intra-site link and must use the same gateway to return traffic.

 HA Mode

If using a single LoadMaster, select Non-HA Mode. When setting up HA mode, one LoadMaster must be set to HA (First) and the other HA (Second). If they are both set to the same option, HA will not operate.

KEMP supplies a license that is HA enabled for each HA unit and specifies the first or second unit.  Therefore, it is not recommended that you change this option until you have discussed the issue with KEMP Support.

 HA Timeout

 The time that the Master machine must be unavailable before a switchover occurs. With this option, the time it takes an HA cluster to detect a failure can be adjusted from 3 seconds to 15 seconds in 3 second increments. The default value is 9 seconds. A lower value will detect failures sooner, whereas a higher value gives better protection against a DOS attack.

 HA Initial Wait Time

How long after the initial boot of a LoadMaster, before the machine decides that it should become active. If the partner machine is running, then this value is ignored. This value can be changed to mitigate the time taken for some intelligent switches to detect that the LoadMaster has started and to bring up the link.

 HA Virtual ID

 When using multiple HA LoadMaster clusters on the same network, this value uniquely identifies each cluster so that there are no potential unwanted interactions.

All LoadMasters on the network that are or will be configured into HA pairs must be assigned unique HA Virtual ID numbers.

Switch to Preferred Server

 By default, neither partner in a HA cluster has priority. So that when a machine restarts after a switchover, the machine becomes the slave and stays in that state until forced to Master. Specifying a preferred host means that when this machine restarts, it will always try to become master and the partner will revert to slave mode. If a preferred server is specified, this will result in a double failover event because if the master unit fails, the slave unit will take over as master and when the preferred unit comes back up it will take over as master.

 HA Update Interface

 The interface used to synchronize the HA information within the HA cluster.

Force Partner Update

Immediately forces the configuration from the active to standby unit without waiting for a normal update.

 Inter HA L4 TCP Connection Updates

 When using L4 services, enabling updates will allow L4 connections to be maintained across a HA switchover by sharing the connection table. This option is ignored for L7 services.

 Inter HA L7 Persistence Updates

 When using L7 services, enabling this option will allow persistence information to be shared between the HA partners. If an HA failover occurs, the persistence information will not be lost. Enabling this option can have a significant performance impact.

HA Multicast Interface

The network interface used for multicast traffic which is used to synchronize Layer 4 and Layer 7 traffic when Inter-HA Updates are enabled.

Use Virtual MAC Addresses

Enabling this option forces the MAC address to switch between a HA pair during a switchover which is useful when gratuitous ARPs (used in communicating changes in HA IP addresses to switches) are not allowed.

This option is only available for hardware LoadMasters.

10.2.1.1 Azure HA Parameters

This screen is only available in LoadMaster for Azure products.

HA Mode_9.png

Azure HA Mode

Select the required HA mode for this unit. There are three options:

Master HA Mode

Slave HA Mode

Non HA Mode

If you are only using a single LoadMaster, select Non HA Mode.

When using HA mode, one machine must be specified as the Master and the second machine must be specified as the Slave.

HA will not work if both units have the same value selected for the Azure HA Mode.

Synchronization of Virtual Service settings only occurs from the master to the slave. Changes made to the master will be replicated to the slave. However, changes made to the slave are never replicated to the master.

If the master unit fails, connections will be directed to the slave unit. The master unit is the master and will never become the slave, even if it fails. Similarly, the slave unit will never become the master. When the master unit comes back up, connections will automatically be directed to the master unit again.

HA Mode_10.png

You can tell, at a glance, which unit is the master, and which is the slave, by checking the mode in the top bar of the LoadMaster.

Partner Name/IP

Specify the host name or IP address of the HA partner unit.

Health Check Port

Set the port over which the health check will be run. The port must be the same on both the master and slave unit in order for HA to function correctly.

10.2.1.2 AWS HA Parameters

This screen is only available in LoadMaster for Amazon Web Services (AWS) products.

HA Mode_11.png

AWS HA Mode

Select the required HA mode for this unit. There are three options:

Master HA Mode

Slave HA Mode

Non HA Mode

If you are only using a single LoadMaster, select Non HA Mode.

When using HA mode, one machine must be specified as the Master and the second machine must be specified as the Slave.

HA will not work if both units have the same value selected for the AWS HA Mode.

Synchronization of Virtual Service settings only occurs from the master to the slave. Changes made to the master will be replicated to the slave. However, changes made to the slave are never replicated to the master.

If the master unit fails, connections will be directed to the slave unit. The master unit is the master and will never become the slave, even if it fails. Similarly, the slave unit will never become the master. When the master unit comes back up, connections will automatically be directed to the master unit again.

HA Mode_10.png

You can tell, at a glance, which unit is the master, and which is the slave, by checking the mode in the top bar of the LoadMaster.

Partner Name/IP

Specify the host name or IP address of the HA partner unit.

Health Check Port

Set the port over which the health check will be run. The port must be the same on both the master and slave unit in order for HA to function correctly.

10.2.2 Cluster Control

The Cluster Control option will only be available on LoadMasters which have a clustering license. To add the clustering feature to your license, please contact a KEMP representative. For further information on clustering, refer to the LoadMaster Clustering, Feature Description.

Cluster Control.png

Create New Cluster: If setting up a new cluster, click this button.

Add to Cluster: Add this LoadMaster to an already existing cluster.

Cluster Control_1.png

When the Create New Cluster button is clicked, the screen above will appear which prompts to set the shared IP address of the cluster. The shared IP address is the address which will be used to administer the cluster.

Cluster Control_2.png

When the Create a New Cluster button is clicked, the LoadMaster reboots. A message will appear asking to reconnect to the shared IP address that was just set.

Cluster Control_3.png

After creating a cluster, the Cluster Control screen in the WUI of the shared IP address will allow the addition of LoadMaster nodes into the cluster.

A LoadMaster can only be added to a cluster when the cluster is available and the LoadMaster is waiting to join the cluster. Refer to the LoadMaster Clustering, Feature Description for further information and steps.

Cluster Control_4.png

The Cluster Control screen, in the shared IP address WUI, displays details for each of the nodes in the cluster.

Show Options: Clicking the Show Options button will display the Cluster Parameters section which contains two additional fields which can be used to set the Cluster Virtual ID and Node Drain Time. For further information, refer to the LoadMaster Clustering, Feature Description.

ID: The cluster ID.

Address: The IP address of the LoadMaster node. If a second IP address appears in brackets after the first one - the second IP address is the IP address of the interface port. Icons are displayed depending on the status:

Icon

Status

Description

Cluster Control_5.png

Admin

The node is the primary control node.

Cluster Control_6.png

Disabled

The node is disabled - connections will not be sent to that node.

Cluster Control_7.png

Starting

The node is starting (enabling).

Cluster Control_8.png

Up

The node is up.

Cluster Control_9.png

Down

The node is down.

Cluster Control_7.png

Draining

The node has been disabled and the connections are being shut down in an orderly fashion. Drain stopping lasts for 10 seconds by default. This can be updated by changing the Node Drain Time value on the Cluster Control screen. For more information, refer to the LoadMaster Clustering, Feature Description.

Operation: The different operations that can be performed in relation to the notes:

Disable: Disable the node. Nodes that are disabled will first go through drain stopping. During the drain stopping time, the connections are shut down in an orderly fashion. After the drain, the node will be disabled and no traffic will be directed to that node.

Enable: Enable the node. When a node comes up, it will not be immediately be brought into rotation. It will only come online after it has been up for 30 seconds.

Delete: Delete a node from the cluster. When a node is deleted it becomes a regular single LoadMaster instance. If the LoadMaster is later added back in to the cluster, any configuration changes that have been made in the shared IP address will propagate to the node LoadMaster.

Reboot: When performing a cluster-wide firmware update, a Reboot button will appear on this screen after uploading the firmware update patch. For step-by-step instructions on how to perform a cluster-wide firmware update, refer to the LoadMaster Clustering, Feature Description.

Add New Node: Add a new node with the specified IP address to the cluster.

10.2.2.1 Cluster Parameters

Cluster Control_10.png

When the Show Options button is clicked, the Cluster Parameters section appears. This section contains two additional WUI options - Cluster Virtual ID and Node Drain Time.

Cluster Virtual ID

When using multiple clusters or LoadMaster HA systems on the same network, the virtual ID identifies each cluster so that there are no potential unwanted interactions. The cluster virtual ID is set to 1 by default, but it can be changed if required. Valid IDs range from 1 to 255. Changes made to an admin Loadmaster propagate across all nodes in the cluster.

Node Drain Time

When a node is disabled, the connections that are still being served by the node are allowed to continue for the amount of seconds specified in the Node Drain Time text box. No new connections will be handled by the node during this time. The Node Drain Time is set to 10 seconds by default, but it can be changed if required. Valid values range from 1 to 600 (seconds).

During the drain time the status changes to Draining until the specified drain time elapses.

When the drain time has elapsed the status changes to disabled.

10.3 System Administration

 These options control the base-level operation of the LoadMaster. It is important to know that applying changes to these parameters in a HA pair must be done using the floating management IP. Many of these options will require a system reboot. When configuring these parameters, only the active system in a pair is affected. 

10.3.1 User Management

The content below describes the different user management WUI fields. For further information on user management and WUI authentication, refer to the User Management, Feature Description.

User Management.png

 The Change Password section can be used to change the appliance password. This is a local change only and does not affect the password of the partner appliance in a HA deployment. 

User Management_1.png

The Local Users section lists any existing local users. Two options are available for existing users:

Modify: Change details for an existing local user, such as their permissions and password. For further information, refer to the Modify User section.

Delete: Delete the relevant user.

User Management_2.png

New users can be added in the Add User section.

Usernames can be a maximum of 64 characters long. Usernames can start with a digit and can contain alphanumeric characters, in addition to the following special characters:

=~^._+#@\/-

Passwords must be a minimum of 8 and a maximum of 64 characters long. All characters are allowed, except \”`’.

The Use RADIUS Server option allows you to determine if RADIUS server authentication will be used when the user is logging in to the LoadMaster. The RADIUS Server details must be setup before this option can be used.

When FRADIUS authentication is in use, the LoadMaster passes the user’s details to the RADIUS server and the RADIUS server informs the LoadMaster whether the user is authenticated or not. For further details on how to configure the RADIUS Server details please refer to the WUI Authentication and Authorization section and the RADIUS Authentication and Authorization, Technical Note.

When Session Management is enabled, the Use RADIUS Server option is not available within this screen. Please refer to the WUI Authentication and Authorization section for further information on how to configure RADIUS Server when Session Management is enabled.

When Session Management is enabled, a check box called No Local Password will be displayed in the Add User section. This option can be enabled if client certificate authentication will be used to authenticate this user when they are accessing the LoadMaster. To enable client certificate authentication, set the Admin Login Method in the Remote Access screen. For further information, refer to the Remote Access section or the User Management, Feature Description.

10.3.1.1 Modify User

User Management_3.png

In this screen you may set the level of user permissions. This determines what configuration changes the user is allowed to perform. The primary user (bal) always has full permissions. Secondary users may be restricted to certain functions.

For further information regarding user permissions, please refer to the KEMP LoadMaster, Product Overview.

User Management_4.png

The Change Password section can be used to modify a user’s password. It is also possible to enable and disable RADUIS server authentication for a user.

When Session Management is enabled, the Use RADIUS Server option is not available within this screen. Please refer to the WUI Authentication and Authorization section for further information on how to configure RADIUS Server when Session Management is enabled.

When Session Management is enabled, a check box called No Local Password will be displayed in the Change Password section. This option can be enabled if client certificate authentication will be used to authenticate this user when they are accessing the LoadMaster. To enable client certificate authentication, set the Admin Login Method in the Remote Access screen. For further information, refer to the Remote Access section or the User Management, Feature Description.

Named users, even those without User Administration privileges, can change their own passwords. When a named user clicks the System Administration > User Management menu option the Change Password screen appears.

User Management_5.png

From within this screen, users can change their own password. Passwords must be a minimum of 8 and a maximum of 64 characters long. All characters are allowed, except \”`’. Once changed, a confirmation screen appears after which the users will be forced to log back in to the LoadMaster using their new password.

User Management_6.png

In the Local Certificate section, a certificate can be generated for the user. A Passphrase can be optionally set which is used to encrypt the private key. Once that certificate has been downloaded, it can be used as a client certificate to allow password-less access to the LoadMaster API. Users with ‘User Administration’ permissions are able to manage local certificates for themselves and other users.

To enable client certificate authentication to the LoadMaster, set the Admin Login Method in the Remote Access screen. For further information, please refer to the Remote Access section or the User Management, Feature Description.

10.3.2 Update License

This screen displays the activation date and the expiration date of the current license. Before updating the license in the LoadMaster, you must either contact your KEMP representative, or use the Upgrade option. After you have contacted KEMP or used the upgrade option, there are two ways to update a license – via the Online method and via the Offline method. Refer to the sections below to find out details about the screens for each method.

For more information and instructions, refer to the Licensing, Feature Description.

10.3.2.1 Online Method

Update License.png

To upgrade the license via the online method, the LoadMaster must be connected to the internet. You will need to enter your KEMP ID and Password to license via the online method.

10.3.2.2 Offline Method

Update License_1.png

To upgrade the license via the offline method, you need to enter license text in the LoadMaster. You can either get this from KEMP or via the Get License link.

A reboot may be required depending on which license you are applying.  If upgrading to an ESP license, a reboot is required after the update.

10.3.2.3 Debug Options

Some debug options have been included on the Update License screen which will help to troubleshoot problems with licensing.

Update License_2.png

Clicking the Debug Options button displays three debug options:

Ping Default Gateway

Ping DNS Servers

Ping Licensing Server

Update License_3.png

Clicking a ping button displays the results of the ping in the right hand column.

The Clean ping logs button clears the information from the right hand column.

10.3.3 System Reboot

System Reboot.png

Reboot

Reboot the appliance.

Shutdown

Clicking this button attempts to power down the LoadMaster. If, for some reason, the power down fails, it will at a minimum halt the CPU.

Reset Machine

 Reset the configuration of the appliance with exception of the license and username and password information. This only applies to the active appliance in a HA pair. 

10.3.4 Update Software

Update Software.png

Contact support to obtain the location of firmware patches and upgrades. Firmware downloads require Internet access.  Detailed patch information is available at http://forums.kemptechnologies.com/

Update Machine

Once you have downloaded the firmware you can browse to the file and upload the firmware directly into LoadMaster. The firmware will be unpacked and validated on LoadMaster. If the patch is validated successfully you will be ask to confirm the release information. To complete the update you will need to reboot the appliance. This reboot can be deferred if needed.

Update Cluster

The Update Cluster option will only be available on LoadMasters which have a clustering license. To add the clustering feature to your license, please contact a KEMP representative. For further information on clustering, refer to the LoadMaster Clustering, Feature Description.

The firmware on all LoadMasters in a cluster can be updated via the shared IP address by clicking the Update Cluster button. For step-by-step instructions on how to perform a cluster-wide software update, refer to the LoadMaster Clustering, Feature Description.

 Restore Software

If you have completed an update of LoadMasters firmware you can use this option to revert to the previous build.

Update Software_1.png

Installed Addon Packages

Add-on packages can be installed in the KEMP LoadMaster. Add-on packages provide features that are additional to those already included in the LoadMaster. KEMP Technologies plan on creating further add-on packages in the future.

Add-On packages can be downloaded from the KEMP Technologies website: www.kemptechnologies.com

To install an add-on package, click Choose File, browse to and select the file and click Install Addon Package. A reboot is required in order for the add-on package to be fully installed. If an add-on package of the same name is uploaded, the existing one will be overwritten/updated.

If an installed add-on package cannot be started, the text will display in red and the hover text will show that the package could not be started.

10.3.5  Backup/Restore

Backup Restore.png

 Create Backup File

 Generate a backup that contains the Virtual Service configuration, the local appliance information and statistics data. License information and SSL Certificate information is not contained in the backup.

For ease of identification, the Backup file name includes the LoadMaster’s hostname.

 Restore Backup

When performing a restore (from a remote machine), the user may select what information should be restored: the VS Configuration only, LoadMaster Base Configuration only, Geo Configuration or a combination of the three options.

It is not possible to restore a single machine configuration onto a HA machine and vice versa.

It is not possible to restore a configuration with ESP-enabled Virtual Services onto a machine which is not enabled for ESP.

 Automated Backups

If the Enable Automated Backups check box is selected, the system may be configured to perform automated backups on a daily or weekly basis.

For ease of identification, the Backup file name includes the LoadMaster’s hostname.

If the automated backups are not being performed at the correct time, ensure the NTP settings are configured correctly. For further information, refer to the Date/Time section.

When to perform backup

Specify the time (24 hour clock) of backup. Also select whether to backup daily or on a specific day of the week. When ready, click the Set Backup Time button.

In some situations, spurious error messages may be displayed in the system logs, such as:

Dec 8 12:27:01 KEMP_1 /usr/sbin/cron[2065]: (system) RELOAD (/etc/crontab)

Dec 8 12:27:01 KEMP_1 /usr/sbin/cron[2065]: (CRON) bad minute (/etc/crontab)

These can be safely ignored and the automated backup will likely still complete successfully.

Remote user

Set the username required to access remote host.

Remote password

Set the password required to access remote host. This field accepts alpha-numeric characters and most non-alphanumeric characters. Disallowed characters are as follows:

Control characters

‘ (apostrophe)

` (grave)

The delete character

Remote host

Set the remote host name.

Remote Pathname

Set the location on the remote host to store the file.

Test Automated Backups

Clicking the Test Backup button performs a test to check if the automated backup configuration is working correctly. The results of the test can be viewed within the System Message File.

The Automated Backup transfer protocol is currently FTP only.

10.3.6 Date/Time

You can manually configure the date and time of LoadMaster or leverage an NTP server. 

Date Time.png

NTP host(s)

Specify the host which is to be used as the NTP server. NTP is a strongly preferred option for a HA cluster. For a single unit it is at the user’s discretion. Clicking the Set NTP host button will refresh the time based on the details configured.

If you do not have a local NTP server, refer to www.pool.ntp.org for a list of public NTP server pools which can be used.

The time zone must always be set manually.

Show NTP Authentication Parameters

The LoadMaster supports NTPv4 which uses cryptographic signing to query a secure NTP server. This uses a simple authorization scheme which uses a shared secret and key to validate that the response from the server is actually valid. Enable the Show NTP Authentication Parameters check box to display the parameters that are needed to support NTP authenticated requests.

NTP Shared Secret

The NTP shared secret string. The NTP secret can be a maximum of 20 ASCII characters long or 40 hexadecimal characters long.

NTP Key ID

Select the NTP key ID. The values range from 1 to 99. Different key IDs can be used for different servers.

NTP Key Type

Select the NTP key type.

In order for the NTPv4 feature to work, a file must be created on the server (/etc/ntp.keys) which has the following format:

<keyid> M <secret string>

...

<keyid> M <secret string>

To enable the use of the key, specify the keyed in the trustedkey line of /etc/ntp.conf, for example, if the keyed is 5 then you have to specify “trustedkey5”. The trustedkey value can take multiple values, for example trustedkey 1 2 3 4 5 9 10).

10.4 Logging Options

Logging of LoadMaster events can be both pushed and also pulled from the appliance.  It is important to note that log files on LoadMaster are not historical, if the appliance reboots the logs are reset. It is important to keep a record of events generated on LoadMaster on a remote facility.   

10.4.1 System Log Files

System Log Files.png

Boot.msg File - contains information, including the current version, during the initial starting of LoadMaster. 

Warning Message File - contains warnings logged during the operation of LoadMaster.

System Message File - contains system events logged during the operation of LoadMaster. This includes both operating system-level and LoadMaster internal events.

Nameserver Log File - show the DNS name server log.

Nameserver Statistics - show the latest name server statistics.

IPsec IKE Log - show the IPsec IKE log.

WAF Event Log - contains logs for most recently triggered WAF rules.

Audit LogFile - contains a log for each action which is performed by a user; either via the API or the WUI. This will only function if session management is enabled. For further information on session management, refer to the Admin WUI Access section.

Reset Logs - will reset ALL log files.

Save all System Log Files - is used if you need to send logs to KEMP support as part of a support effort. Click this button, save the files to your PC and forward them to KEMP support.

10.4.1.1 Debug Options

The LoadMaster has a range of features that will help you and KEMP Support staff with diagnosing connectivity issues. Clicking the Debug Options button will bring up the screen shown below.

System Log Files_1.png

Disable All Transparency

Disables transparency on every Virtual Service and forces them to use Layer 7. Use with caution.

Enable L7 Debug Traces

Generates log traffic in the message files. Due to the large amount of files being logged it slows down L7 processing.

Perform an l7adm

Displays raw statistics about the L7 subsystem.

Enable WAF Debug Logging

Enable WAF debug traces.

This generates a lot of log traffic. It also slows down WAF processing. Only enable this option when requested to do so by KEMP Technical Support. KEMP does not recommend enabling this option in a production environment.

The WAF debug logs are never closed and they are rotated if they get too large. WAF needs to be disabled and re-enabled in all WAF-enabled Virtual Service settings in order to re-enable the debug logs. Alternatively, perform a rule update, with rules that are relevant for the Virtual Service(s).

Enable IRQ Balance

Enable this option only after consulting with KEMP support staff.

Enable TSO

Enable TCP Segmentation Offload (TSO).

Only modify this option after consultation with KEMP Technical Support. Changes to this option will only take affect after a reboot.

Enable Bind Debug Traces

Enable bind debug trace logs for GEO.

Perform a PS

Performs a ps on the system.

Display Meminfo

Displays raw memory statistics.

Display Slabinfo

Displays raw slab statistics.

Perform an Ifconfig

Displays raw Ifconfig output.

Perform a Netstat

Displays Netstat output.

Include Netstat in Backups

By default, the LoadMaster includes a Netstat output in backups taken. When this is included, backups take longer to complete. You can stop the Netstat output from being included by disabling this option.

Reset Statistic Counters

Reset all statistics counters to zero.

Flush OCSPD Cache

When using OCSP to verify client certificates, OCSPD caches the responses it gets from the OCSP server. This cache can be flushed by pressing this button. Flushing the OCSPD cache can be useful when testing, or when the Certificate Revocation List (CRL) has been updated.

Enable SSOMGR Debug Traces

Enabling this option will record any login attempts to the SSO domains configured on the LoadMaster. When this option is enabled, the logs are stored in the SSOMGR Audit Logs in the Extended Log Files screen. For further information on these log files, refer to the Extended Log Files section.

Stop IPsec IKE Daemon

Stop the IPsec IKE daemon on the LoadMaster.

If this button is clicked, the connection for all tunnels will go down.

Perform an IPsec Status

Display the raw IPsec status output.

Enable IKE Debug Level Logs

Control the IPsec IKE log level.

Flush SSO Authentication Cache

Clicking the Flush SSO Cache button flushes all Single Sign-On (SSO) records, resets all authentication server statuses, resets the KCD domain (if relevant) and re-reads the configuration. This has the effect of logging off all clients using Single Sign-On to connect to the LoadMaster.

Linear SSO Logfiles

By default, older log files are deleted to make room for newer log files, so that the filesystem does not become full. Selecting the Linear SSO Logfiles check box prevents older files from being deleted.

When using Linear SSO Logging, if the log files are not periodically removed and the file system becomes full, access to ESP-enabled Virtual Services will be blocked, preventing unlogged access to the virtual service. Access to non-ESP enabled Virtual Services are unaffected by the Linear SSO Logfile feature.  

Netconsole Host

The syslog daemon on the specified host will receive all critical kernel messages. The syslog server must be on the local LAN and the messages sent are UDP messages. 

You can select which interface the Netconsole Host is set to via the Interface dropdown.

Please ensure that the netconsole host specified is on the selected interface as errors may occur if it is not.

Ping Host

Performs a ping on the specified host. The interface which the ping should be sent from can be specified in the Interface drop-down list. The Automatic option selects the correct interface to ping an address on a particular network.

The interface tries to determine if the address to ping is an IPv4 or IPv6 address and selects the correct command to perform the ping. For an address in numeric form this is simple, however this is not possible for non-numeric addresses so they will always be treated as an IPv4 address.

Ping6 Host

Perform a ping6 of a specific IPv6 host.

Traceroute Host

Perform a traceroute of a specific host.

Kill LoadMaster

Permanently disables all LoadMaster functions. The LoadMaster can be re-enabled by being relicensed.

Please do not kill your LoadMaster without consulting KEMP Technical Support.

The Kill LoadMaster option will not be available in LoadMasters which are tenants of the KEMP Condor.

System Log Files_2.png

TCP dump

A TCP dump can be captured either by one or all Ethernet ports. Address and port parameters, as well as optional parameters may be specified.  The maximum number of characters permitted in the Options text box is 255.

You can stop and start the dump. You can also download it to a particular location. The results of the TCP dump can then be analysed in a packet trace analyser tool such as Wireshark.

For more information, refer to the Packet Trace Guide, Technical Note.

10.4.2 Extended Log Files

The Extended Log Files screen provides options for logs relating to the ESP and WAF features. These logs are persistent and will be available after a LoadMaster reboot. To view all of the options click on the Extended Log Files.pngicons.

The WAF logs are not generated in real time – they can be up to two minutes behind what the WAF engine is actually processing.

Extended Log Files_1.png

A number of different log files are stored on the LoadMaster:

ESP Connection Log: logs recording each connection.

ESP Security Log: logs recording all security alerts.

ESP User Log: logs recording all user logins.

WAF Audit Logs: recording WAF logs based on what has been selected for the Audit mode drop-down list in the WAF Options section of the Virtual Service modify screen. The number listed in each log entry corresponds to the ID of the Virtual Service. To get the Virtual Service ID, first ensure that the API interface is enabled (System Configuration > Miscellaneous Options > Remote Access > Enable API Interface). Then, in a web browser address bar, enter https://<LoadMasterIPAddress>/access/listvs. Check the index of the Virtual Service. This is the number that corresponds to the number on the audit log entry.

SSOMGR Audit Logs: logs relating to SSO authentication attempts. To enable these logs, enable the SSOMGR Debug Traces option in the Debug Options screen.

To view the logs please select the relevant options and click the relevant View button.

Some of the logs can be filtered by a number of methods. If you wish to view logs between a particular date range, select the relevant dates in the from and to fields and click the View button. One or more archived log files can be viewed by selecting the relevant file(s) from the list of file names and clicking the View button. You can filter the log files by entering a word(s) or regular expression in the filter field and clicking on the View field.

The SSOMGR log file gets compressed at midnight each day as long as the file is not empty (i.e. if SSOMGR Debug Traces is enabled in the Debug Options screen). When a compressed file (.gz) is created, it is named with a datestamp. When the SSOMGR file is compressed, a new SSOMGR file is created and this file then gets written to when the relevant logs are generated. oThe LoadMaster holds up to six compressed SSOMGR log files at any one time. When the compressed file is seven days old it is removed.

Clear Extended Logs

All extended logs can be deleted by clicking the Clear button.

Specific log files can be deleted by filtering on a specific date range, selecting one or more individual log files in the log file list or selecting a specific log type (for example connection, security or user) in the log file list and clicking the Clear button. Click OK on any warning messages.

Save Extended Logs

All Extended logs can be saved to a file by clicking the Save button.

Specific log files can be saved by filtering on a specific date range, selecting one or more individual log files in the log file list or selecting a specific log type (for example connection, security or user) in the log file list and clicking the Save button.

10.4.3 Syslog Options

The LoadMaster can produce various warning and error messages using the syslog protocol.  These messages are normally stored locally.

Syslog Options.png

It is also possible to configure the LoadMaster to transmit these error messages to a remote syslog server by entering the relevant IP address in the relevant field and clicking Change Syslog Parameters.

Six different error message levels are defined and each message level may be sent to a different server. Notice messages are sent for information only; Emergency messages normally require immediate user action.

Up to ten individual IP addresses can be specified for each of the Syslog fields. The IP addresses must be differentiated using a space separated list.

Examples of the type of message that may be seen after setting up a Syslog server are below:

Emergency: Kernel-critical error messages

Critical: Unit one has failed and unit two is taking over as master (in a HA setup)

Error: Authentication failure for root from 192.168.1.1

Warn: Interface is up/down

Notice: Time has been synced

Info: Local advertised Ethernet address

One point to note about syslog messages is they are cascading in an upwards direction.  Thus, if a host is set to receive WARN messages, the message file will include message from all levels above WARN but none for levels below. 

We recommend you do not set all six levels for the same host because multiple messages for the same error will be sent to the same host.

To enable a syslog process on a remote Linux server to receive syslog messages from the LoadMaster, the syslog must be started with the “-r” flag.

10.4.4  SNMP Options

 With this menu, the SNMP configuration can be modified.

SNMP Options.png

 Enable SNMP

 This check box enables or disables SNMP metrics. For example, this option allows the LoadMaster to respond to SNMP requests.

 By default SNMP is disabled.

When the feature is enabled, the following traps are generated:

 ColdStart: generic (start/stop of SNMP sub-system)

VsStateChange: (Virtual Service state change)

 RsStateChange: (Real Server state change)

 HaStateChange: (HA configuration only: LoadMaster failover)

When using SNMP monitoring of ESP-enabled Virtual Services that were created using a template, ensure to monitor each SubVS directly rather than relying on the master service. This is because the Authentication Proxy sub-service will always be marked as up and, as a consequence, so will the master service.

The information regarding all LoadMaster-specific data objects is stored in three enterprise-specific MIBs (Management Information Base).

MIB file

Related Data

IPVS-MIB.txt

Virtual Server stats

B-100-MIB.txt

L7 LoadMaster configuration and status info

ONE4NET-MIB.txt

Enterprise ID

 These MIBs (located on the KEMP documentation page - http://kemptechnologies.com/documentation) need to be installed on the SNMP manager machine in order to be able to request the performance/config-data of the LoadMaster via SNMP.

The description of the counters can be taken from the LoadMaster MIBs (the description clause). Apart from just reading the MIB this can be done for Linux (and ucdsnmp) with the command:

snmptranslate -Td -OS <oid>

where <oid> is the object identifier in question.

Example: <oid> = .1.3.6.1.4.1.one4net.ipvs.ipvsRSTable.rsEntry.RSConns

snmptranslate -Td –Ov .1.3.6.1.4.1.one4net.ipvs.ipvsRSTable.rsEntry.RSConns.1.3.6.1.4.1.12196.12.2.1.12

RSConns OBJECT-TYPE

-- FROM IPVS-MIB

SYNTAXCounter32

MAX-ACCESSread-only

STATUScurrent

DESCRIPTION"the total number of connections for this RS"

::= { iso(1) org(3) dod(6) internet(1) private(4) enterprises(1) one4net(12196) ipvs(12) ipvsRSTable(2) rsEntry(1) 12 }

The KEMP OID is called one4net for legacy reasons.

The data object defined in the LoadMaster MIBS is a superset to the counters displayed by the WUI.

The data objects on the LoadMaster are not writable, so only GET requests (GET, GET-NEXT, GET-BULK, etc.) should be used.

Enable SNMP V3

This check box enables SNMPv3 metrics. SNMPv3 primarily added security and remote configuration enhancements to SNMP.

When this option is enabled, two additional fields become available - Username and Password.

The Username and Password must be set in order for SNMPv3 to work.

The password must be at least 8 characters long.

Authentication protocol

Select the relevant Authentication protocol - MD5 or SHA. SHA is recommended.

Privacy protocol

Select the relevant Privacy protocol - AES or DES. AES is recommended.

 SNMP Clients

 With this option, the user can specify from which SNMP management hosts the LoadMaster will respond to.

 If no client has been specified, the LoadMaster will respond to SNMP management requests from any host.

 SNMP Community String

 This option allows the SNMP community string to be changed. The default value is “public”.

Allowed characters in the Community String are as follows: a-z, A-Z, 0-9, _.-@()?#%^+~!.

 Contact

 This option allows the SNMP Contact string to be changed. For example, this could be e-mail address of the administrator of the LoadMaster.

 SNMP Location

 This option allows the SNMP location string to be changed.

This field accepts the following characters:
a-z A-Z 0-9 _ . - ; , = : { } @ ( ) ? # % ^ + ~ !
Do not enter a hashtag symbol (#) as the first character in the Location.

 SNMP traps

 When an important event happens to a LoadMaster a Virtual Service or to a Real Server, a trap is generated. These are sent to the SNMP trap sinks. If a change is made, the LoadMaster waits for all changes to finish and then waits five seconds before reading it. At that point, all changes will have stabilized and SNMP traps can then be sent. If there are any state changes within the five second wait, the state changes are handled and then the wait is restarted.

 Enable/Disable SNMP Traps

 This toggle option enables and disables the sending of SNMP traps.

 SNMP traps are disabled by default.

Send SNMP traps from the shared address

This check box is only visible when the LoadMaster is in HA mode.

By default, SNMP traps are sent using the IP address of the master HA unit as the source IP address. Enabling this option will send SNMP traps from the master HA unit using the shared IP address.

 SNMP Trap Sink1

This option allows the user to specify a list of hosts to which a SNMPv1 trap will be sent when a trap is generated.

 SNMP Trap Sink2

This option allows the user to specify a list of hosts to which a SNMPv2 trap will be sent when a trap is generated.

10.4.5 Email Options

This screen permits the configuration of email alerting for LoadMaster events.  Email notification can be delivered for six predefined informational levels.  Each level can have a distinct email address and each level supports multiple email recipients. Email alerting depends on a mail server, support for both an open relay mail server and a secure mail server is provided. 

Email Options.png

 SMTP Server

Enter the FQDN or IP address of the mail server. If you are using FQDN please make sure to set the DNS Server.

Port

Specify the port of the SMTP server which will handle the email events.

Server Authorization (Username)

Enter the username if your mail server requires authorization for mail delivery. This is not required if you mail server does not require authorization.

Authorization Password

Enter the password if your mail server requires authorization for mail delivery. This is not a required if you mail server does not require authorization.

Local Domain

Enter the top-level domain, if your mail server is part of a domain. This is not a required parameter.

Connection Security

Select the type of security for the connection;

None

STARTTLS, if available

STARTTLS

SSL/TLS

Set Email Recipient

In the various Recipients text boxes, enter the email address that corresponds with the level of notification desired. Notifications will be sent for the level of severity, plus anything with a higher severity – so there is no need to enter the email address in multiple text boxes as that will lead to duplicate notifications being sent. For example, any email address entered into the Critical Recipients text box will get critical emails, but will also get emergency emails.

Multiple email addresses are supported by a comma-separated list, such as:

Info Recipientsinfo@kemptechnologies.com, sales@kemptechnologies.com

Error Recipientssupport@kemptechnologies.com

Clicking the Send Test Email to All Recipients button sends a test email to all the listed email recipients.

10.4.6 SDN Log Files

SDN Log Files.png

The SDN Log Files screen provides options for logs relating to the SDN feature. To view all of the options click the SDN Log Files_1.png icons.

View SDNstats Logs

To view the SDNstats logs please select the relevant log files and click the View button.

The sdnstats.log file is the main, rolling log file. The .gz files are backups of logs for a particular day.

One or more archived log files can be viewed by selecting the relevant file(s) from the list of file names and clicking the View button. The log files can be filtered by entering a word(s) or regular expression in the filter field and clicking the View button.

View SDNstats Traces

This option is only available if SDNstats debug logging is enabled (System Configuration > Logging Options > SDN Log Files > Debug Options > Enable Debug Log).

To view the SDNstats logs please select the relevant log files and click the View button.

One or more archived log files can be viewed by selecting the relevant file(s) from the list of file names and clicking the View button. The log files can be filtered by entering a word(s) or regular expression in the filter field and clicking the View button.

SDN Log Files_2.png

The traces show probing results – this indicates if the LoadMaster can successfully communicate with the SDN controller.

Clear Logs

All SDN logs can be deleted by clicking the Clear button.

A specific range of log files can be filtered by specifying a date range using the from and to fields. Specifying a date range will simply select the relevant log files that apply in the right-hand box. Individual log files can still be selected/deselected as needed on the right.

Important: If the sdnstats.log file is selected, all logs in that file will be cleared, regardless of what dates are selected in the date range fields.

Save Extended Logs

All SDN logs can be saved to a file by clicking the Save button.

Specific log files can be saved by filtering on a specific date range and/or selecting one or more individual log files in the log file list in the log file list and clicking the Save button.

10.4.6.1 Debug Options

To get to the SDN Debug Options screen, click the Debug Options button on the SDN Log Files screen.

SDN Log Files_3.png

Enable Debug Log

Enable SDNstats debug logging.

To view the SDN Statistics logs, open System Configuration > Logging Options > SDN Log Files, select the log file you wish to view and click the View button.

Debug logging should only be enabled when troubleshooting because it will impact performance of the LoadMaster.

Restart SDNstats service

When troubleshooting issues with SDN, the entire SDN service can be restarted. Restarting the connection will not affect any traffic connections - it just restarts the connection between the LoadMaster and the SDN controller.

1. If successful the Process ID will change to a new id.

The Process ID can be found by clicking the Debug button in System Configuration > Logging Options > System LogFiles and clicking the ps button.

This will restart the connection to all attached SDN controllers.

SDNstats mode

There are two modes that can be used to gather the SDN statistics.

SDN Log Files_4.png

The mode can be set by going to System Configuration > Logging Options > SDN Log Files > Debug Options and setting the SDNstats mode.

The modes are described below:

Mode 1: When set to mode 1, the statistics are taken from the switch port that is connected to the server and the statistics are relayed back to the LoadMaster.

Mode 2: When set to mode 2, the information is taken from all of the switch ports along the path.

10.5 Miscellaneous Options

10.5.1 WUI Settings

Only the bal user or users with ‘All Permissions’ set can use this functionality. Users with different permissions can view the screen but all buttons and input fields are greyed out.

WUI Settings.png

Enable Hover Help

Enables blue hover notes shown when the pointer is held over a field.

Message of the Day (MOTD)

Type in text into the field and click the Set MotD button. This message will be displayed within the LoadMaster Home screen.

If WUI Session Management is enabled, the MOTD is displayed on the login screen rather than the Home screen.

The maximum allowed message length is 5,000 characters. HTML is supported, but not required. Single quotes (‘) and double quotes (“) are not allowed, though you can use the equivalent HTML character codes i.e. entering &#34it&#39s allowed&#34 would result in a MOTD of “it’s allowed”.

Set Statistics Display Size

This sets the maximum number of rows that can be displayed in the Statistics page. The allowable range is between 10 and 100 rows being displayed on the page.

End User License

Click the Show EULA button to display the LoadMaster End User License Agreement.

Enable Historical Graphs

Enable the gathering of historical statistics for the Virtual Services and Real Servers.

Collect All Statistics

By default, this option is disabled. This means that only the statistics for the Virtual Services and Real Servers that are configured to be displayed on the home page are collected. Enabling this option will force the LoadMaster to collect statistics for all Virtual Services and Real Servers.

If there are a large number of Virtual Services and Real Servers this option can cause CPU utilization to become very high.

10.5.2 L7 Configuration

L7 Configuration.png

Allow Connection Scaling over 64K Connections

Under very high load situations, Port Exhaustion can occur. Enabling this option will allow the setting of Alternate Source Addresses which can be used to expand the number of local ports available.

If more than 64K concurrent connections are required, enable the Allow Connection Scaling over 64K Connections option and set the Virtual Service IP as the alternate address in the Alternate Source Addresses input field. This allows each Virtual Service to have its own pool of source ports.

Transparent Virtual Services are capped at 64K concurrent connections. This limit is on a per Virtual Service basis.

If, after selecting this option, you set some Alternate Source Addresses, you will not be able to deselect the Allow connection scaling over 64K Connections option.

Always Check Persist

By default, the L7 module will only check persist on the first request of a HTTP/1.1 connection. Selecting Yes for this option will check the persistence on every request. Selecting Yes – Accept Changes means that all persistence changes will be saved, even in the middle of a connection.

Add Port to Active Cookie

When using active cookies, the LoadMaster creates the cookie from (among other things) the IP address of the client. However, if many clients are behind a proxy server, all of those clients come from the same IP address. Turning this on adds the clients source port to the string as well, making it more random.

Conform to RFC

This option addresses parsing the header of a HTTP request in conformance with RFC 1738.

The request consists of 3 parts: GET /pathname HTTP/1.1 and when "conform" is on, the LoadMaster scans through the pathname until it finds a space. It then presumes that the next thing is HTTP/1.x. If the pathname contains spaces and the browser is conformant to the RFC, the pathname will have the spaces escaped to "%20" so the scan for a space will function correctly.

However, on some non-conformant browsers, spaces are not escaped and the wrong pathname is processed. And since the system cannot find the HTTP/1.x, the LoadMaster will reject the request.

Turning off this feature forces the LoadMaster to assume that the pathname extends to the last space on the line. It is then assumed that what follows is HTTP/1.x. So making pathnames with spaces in them useable – however, it is non-conformant to the RFC 1738.

Close on Error

If the LoadMaster has to send back a failure report to the client, for example if a file is newer in the cache; this forces the LoadMaster to close the connection after sending the response. You can continue using the connection after sending a failure report, but some systems could become confused. This option forces the close instead of continuing.

Add Via Header In Cache Responses

The relevant HTTP RFC states that proxies should add a Via header to indicate that something came from the cache. Unfortunately, older LoadMaster versions did not do this. This check box is used to enable backward compatibility with older versions (if needed).

Real Servers are Local

The LoadMaster has an automatic detection of local/non-local clients for the purpose of transparency (selective transparency). This works well in most cases, but it does not work well if the client is actually a Real Server. Turning this option on helps the LoadMaster to determine that a Real Server is actually local, therefore making selective transparency work.

When this option is enabled in a two-armed environment (with clients and Real Servers on the second interface) the Real Servers are treated as if they are local to the clients, i.e. non-transparent. If the Real Servers are on a completely different network, then they cannot be local and will always be treated as not local. Local is defined as being on the same network.

Enabling this option requires careful network topology planning and should not be attempted before contacting the KEMP Support team.

Drop Connections on RS Failure

This is useful for Microsoft Outlook users whereby it closes the connection immediately when a Real Server failure is detected.

Exchange users should always select this option. The Idle Connection Timeout option is also set to 86400 at the same time. For further information, refer to the MS Exchange 2010, Deployment Guide.

Drop at Drain Time End

If enabled, all open connections to disabled Real Servers will be dropped at the end of the Real Servers Drain Stop Time or immediately if there are no persist entries associated with the Real Server.

L7 Authentication Timeout (secs)

This option supports the integration with 3rd party, multi-factor, authentication solutions which may have secondary processes such as SMS or telephone verification. This setting determines how long (in seconds) the SSO form waits for authentication verification to complete before timing out.

L7 Client Token Timeout (secs)

The duration of time (in seconds) to wait for the client token while the process of authentication is ongoing (used for RSA SecurID and RADIUS authentication). The range of valid values is 60 to 300. The default value is 120.

 L7 Connection Drain Time (secs)

 L7 Connection Drain Time impacts only new connections. Existing connections will continue relaying application data to a disabled server until that connection is terminated, unless the Drop at Drain Time End checkbox is selected.

 Setting the L7 Connection Drain Time (secs) to 0 will force all the connections to be dropped immediately when a Real Server is disabled.

If the service is operating at Layer 4, drain stop does not apply. In this case, the persistence record is discarded, the connection is scheduled to an enabled and healthy server and a new persistence record is created.

New TCP connections will not be sent to disabled servers and sent to enabled and healthy servers if:

Persistence is not enabled or

A persistence record for the connection exists and is not expired or

If the Real Server is down or

If the Drain Stop timer has expired

If all the above conditions are not true, the connection is sent to the specified server and the persistence record is refreshed.

The drain stop timer does not impact existing connections.

 Additional L7 Header

 This enables Layer 7 header injection for HTTP/HTTPS Virtual Services. Header injection can be set to X-ClientSide (KEMP LoadMaster specific), X-Forwarded-For, or None.

100-Continue Handling

Determines how 100-Continue Handling messages are handled. The available options are:

RFC-2616 Compliant: conforms with the behavior as outlined in RFC-2616

Require 100-Continue: forces the LoadMaster to wait for the 100-Continue message

RFC-7231 Compliant: ensures the LoadMaster does not wait for 100-Continue messages

Modifying how 100 Continue messages are handled by the system requires an understanding of the relevant technologies as described in the RFCs listed above. It is recommended that you speak with a KEMP Technical Support engineer before making changes to these settings.

Allow Empty POSTs

By default the LoadMaster blocks POSTs that do not contain a Content-Length or Transfer-Encoding header to indicate the length of the requests payload. When the Allow Empty POSTs option is enabled, such requests are assumed to have no payload data and are therefore not rejected.

In version 7.1-24 and later releases, the supported Content-Length limit has been increased to 2TB (from 2GB).

Least Connection Slow Start

When using the Least Connection or Weighted Least Connection scheduling methods, a period can be specified during which the number of connections are restricted to a Real Server which has come online and gradually increased. This ensures that the Real Server is not overloaded with an initial flood of connections.

The value of this Slow Start period can be between 0 and 600 seconds.

Share SubVS Persistence

By default, each SubVS of a Virtual Service has an independent persistence table. Enabling this option will allow the SubVS to share this information. In order for this to work, the persistence mode must be the same on all SubVSs within that Virtual Service. A reboot is required to activate this option.

The only Persistence Mode that cannot be shared is SSL Session ID.

When setting up shared SubVS persistence, there are some requirements to get this feature fully functional:

All Real Servers in the SubVS need to be the same

The Persistence Mode needs to be the same across all SubVSs

The timeouts need to be set with the same timeout value

If the above requirements are not correct, the persistence may not work correctly either within the SubVS or across the SubVSs.

10.5.3 Network Options

Network Options.png

Enable Server NAT

This option enables Server Network Address Translation (SNAT). If this is disabled, the Real Server IP address is used when connecting.

If this is enabled, addresses that are of the same address family (IPv4/IPv6) as the primary address of the default gateway are NATed to the “primary address”. If the Use Address for Server NAT is enabled in the Virtual Service, the Virtual Service address will be used. For further information on the Use Address for Server NAT option, refer to the Standard Options section.

If the source address is not in the same family as the primary address, then the address will be SNATed to the first additional address which is on the same network as the default gateway for that address family.

For example, if the primary address of the default interface is an IPv6 address, then IPv6 addresses will be SNATed to that address. If the primary address is an IPv4 address, then IPv6 addresses will be SNATed to the first additional address (IPv6) which is on the same network as the IPv6 default gateway.

Similarly, if the primary address of the default interface is an IPv4 address, then IPv4 addresses will be SNATed to that address. If the primary address is an IPv6 address, then IPv4 addresses will be SNATed to the first additional address (IPv4) which is on the same network as the IPv4 default gateway.

Connection Timeout (secs)

The length of time (in seconds) that a connection may remain idle before it is closed. This value is independent of the Persistence Timeout value.

Setting a value of 0 will reset the value to the default setting of 660 seconds.

Enable Non-Local Real Servers

Allow non-local Real Servers to be assigned to Virtual Services. This may be needed if the LoadMaster can only have one interface and the Real Servers are on a different network to the interface.

Enable Alternate GW support

If there is more than one interface enabled, this option provides the ability to move the default gateway to a different interface.

Enabling this option adds another option to the Interfaces screen – Use for Default Gateway.

The Enable Alternate GW support option will appear on a different screen in GEO only LoadMasters.

Enable TCP Timestamps

The LoadMaster can include a timestamp in the SYN when connecting to Real Servers.

Enable this only upon request from KEMP support.

Enable TCP Keepalives

By default the TCP keepalives are enabled which improves the reliability of TCP connections that are long lived (SSH sessions). Keepalives are not usually required for normal HTTP/HTTPS services, but may be required for FTP services, for example.

The keepalive messages are sent from the LoadMaster to the Real Server and to the client.  Therefore, if the client is on a mobile network, there may be an issue with additional data traffic.

Enable Reset on Close

When this option is enabled, the LoadMaster will close its connection with the Real Servers by using RESET instead of the normal close handshake. This only makes a difference under high loads of many connections.

Subnet Originating Requests

With this option enabled, the source IP address of non-transparent requests will come from the LoadMaster’s address on the relevant subnet, i.e. the subnet where the Real Server is located or the subnet of the gateway that can route to the Real Server (if the Real Server is non-local and behind a static route).

This is the global option/setting.

It is recommended that the Subnet Originating Requests option is enabled on a per-Virtual Service basis.

When the global option is disabled, the per Virtual Service Subnet Originating Requests option takes precedence, i.e. it can be enabled or disabled per Virtual Service. This can be set in the Standard Options section of the Virtual Services properties screen (if Transparency is disabled). For more information on the per Virtual Service option, refer to the Standard Options section.

If this option is switched on for a Virtual Service that has SSL re-encryption enabled, all connections currently using the Virtual Service will be terminated because the process that handles the connection must be killed and restarted.

Enable Strict IP Routing

When this option is selected, only packets which arrive at the machine over the same interface as the outbound interface are accepted.

The Use Default Route Only option may be a better way to achieve this.

Handle non HTML Uploads

Enabling this option ensures that non-HTML uploads (such as FTP uploads) function correctly.

Enable Connection Timeout Diagnostics

By default, connection timeout logs are not enabled. This is because they may cause too many unnecessary logs. If you wish to generate logs relating to connection timeouts, select the Enable Connection Timeout check box.

Enable SSL Renegotiation

Unchecking this option will cause SSL connections to terminate if a renegotiation is requested by the client.

Size of SSL Diffie-Hellman Key Exchange

Select the strength of the key used in the Diffie-Hellman key exchanges. If this value is changed, a reboot is required in order to use the new value. The default value is 2048 Bits.

Use Default Route Only

Forces traffic from Virtual Services that have default route entries set, to be only routed to the interface where the Virtual Service’s default route is located. This setting can allow the LoadMaster to be directly connected to client networks without returning traffic directly using the adjacent interface.

Enabling this option affects all Virtual Services in the same network.

HTTP(S) Proxy

This option allows clients to specify the HTTP(S) proxy server and port the LoadMaster will use to access the internet.

10.5.4  AFE Configuration

AFE Configuration.png

Maximum Cache Size

This defines how much memory can be utilized by the cache in megabytes. The Maximum Cache Size defines how much of the main memory should be assigned to the cache. It can never be more than one fifth of the total memory of the machine. Assigning more memory for the cache will reduce the amount of memory available for connections and persist entries. In a system that is correctly configured, there should be enough memory for a full cache and all connections that the system that is expected to handle. If this is not the case, the system could run out of memory.

Cache Virtual Hosts

When this option is disabled, the cache presumes there is only one virtual host supported on the Real Server. Enabling this option allows the cache to support multiple virtual hosts which have different content.

File Extensions Not to Cache

A list of files types that should not be cached.

File Extensions Not to Compress

A list of file types that should not be compressed.

Detection Rules

Select the relevant detection rules and click the Install New Rules button to install them.

If you are implementing SNORT rules, please remember the following:

The destination port must be $HTTP_PORTS

A ‘msg’ may be optionally set

The flow must be set to ‘to_server,established’

The actual filter may be either ‘content’ or ‘pcre’

Additional ‘http_’ parameters may be set

The classtype must be set to a valid value

To get updated or customized SNORT rules, please refer to the SNORT website: https://www.snort.org/.

Detection Level

Supports four levels of what to do when problems are encountered:

Low – only logging with no rejection

Default – only critical problems rejected

High – Serious and critical problems rejected

Paranoid – All detected problems rejected

Client Limiting:

It is possible to set a limit of the number of connections per second from a given host (limits up to 100K are allowed). After setting the "default limit" to a value, the system allows you to set different limits for specific hosts/networks so you can limit a network and/or host.

If you set a network and a host on that network, the host should be placed first since the list is processed in the order that it is displayed.

To turn client limiting off, set the Client Connection Limiter value to 0.

10.5.5 SDN Configuration

SDN Configuration.png

Add New

Add a new SDN controller connection.

Modify

Modify an existing SDN controller connection.

Delete

Delete an existing SDN controller connection.

10.5.5.1 SDN Controller Settings

SDN Configuration_1.png

When adding a new SDN controller connection, initially a screen will appear asking for the Cluster, IPv4 address and Port. After an SDN controller connection has been added, the settings can be updated by clicking the Modify button on the SDN Statistics screen.

Cluster

The cluster that the SDN controller will be a member of.

Keep the Cluster field set to the default value.

IPv4

The IPv4 address of the SDN controller.

Port

The port of the SDN controller WUI.

The default Port for the HP VAN Controller is 8443.

The default Port for the OpenDaylight SDN controller is 8181.

HTTPS

Use HTTP/HTTPS to access the SDN controller.

User

The username to be used to access the SDN controller.

Password

The password of the user to be used to access the SDN controller.

References

Unless otherwise specified, the below documents can be found on http://kemptechnologies.com/documentation.

Virtual Services and Templates, Feature Description

RSA Two Factor Authentication, Feature Description

Content Rules, Feature Description

LoadMaster 5.1 to 6.0 Migration, Technical Note

Header Modification Guide, Technical Note

GEO, Feature Description

GEO, Product Overview

GEO Sticky DNS, Feature Description

Packet Trace Guide, Technical Note

VMware Tools Add-On Package, Feature Description

Custom Authentication Form, Technical Note

Port Following, Feature Description

SSL Accelerated Services, Feature Description

Kerberos Constrained Delegation, Feature Description

Hardware Security Module (HSM), Feature Description

IPsec Tunneling, Feature Description

KEMP LoadMaster, Product Overview

SDN Adaptive Load Balancing, Feature Description

DoD Common Access Card (CAC) Authentication, Feature Description

RESTful API, Interface Description

Licensing, Feature Description

Radius Authentication and Authorization, Technical Note

LoadMaster Clustering, Feature Description

MS Exchange 2010, Deployment Guide

RADIUS Authentication and Authorization, Technical Note

User Management, Feature Description

Document History

Date

Change

Reason for Change

Ver.

Resp.

Oct 2016

Release updates

Updated to new LTS version (7.1.35)

5.0

LB

Jan 2017

Minor changes

Updated Copyright Notices

6.0

LB

Mar 2017 Minor changes Enhancements made 7.0 LB
Mar 2017 Release updates Updates for 7.1.35.3 8.0 LB

 

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