Internet Protocol Security (IPsec) is designed and used to provide secure connections between nodes and networks throughout the internet. IPsec has become the standard for most of the IP Virtual Private Network (VPN) technology.
This is document covers the policy-based VPN functionality that is available in the latest LoadMaster Long Term Support (LTS) release. As of LoadMaster firmware version 7.2.53, support was added for route-based VPNs.
IPsec can operate in a point-to-point (aka host-to-host) configuration or in a site-to-site (aka network-to-network) configuration. An IPsec implementation operates in a host, as a Security Gateway (SG), or as an independent device, affording protection to IP traffic for both IPv4 and IPv6. (A security gateway is an intermediate system implementing IPsec, for example a firewall, router or gateway which has been IPsec-enabled.)
A suite of protocols are utilized to implement IPsec. These include Authentication Header (AH) and Encapsulating Security Payload (ESP). Handshaking and exchanging session keys is implemented using the Internet Key Exchange (IKE) protocol.
IPsec also has several Hashed Message Authentication Codes (HMAC) from which to choose, each giving different levels of protection for attacks such as man-in-the-middle, packet replay (anti-replay), and data integrity attacks.
There are many benefits of using IPsec. These include, but are not limited to:
Secure connectivity provided across distributed enterprises
Bandwidth benefits over traditionally expensive Wide Area Network (WAN) infrastructure
Cost benefits over traditionally expensive WAN infrastructure
Security - IPsec VPNs inherently provide a high degree of data security
Flexibility - IPsec VPNs can be established and be available using the internet
Resilience and High Availability (HA) for critical and sensitive applications available over the internet
The purpose of this document is to explain how to set up and configure IPsec tunneling on the Kemp LoadMaster.
This document is intended to be used by anyone who is interested in setting up IPsec tunneling on the LoadMaster.
Published with LMOS version 7.2.54 LTS. This document has not required substantial changes since 7.2.54 LTS. However, the content is in sync with the latest LoadMaster LTS firmware.
If needed, please obtain an externally-facing IPv4 address for the VPN device. This IP address may be required for a site-to-site configuration. Please refer to the Limitations section below to find out what is supported for what platforms in relation to using a public IP address.
The VPN device will either be a LoadMaster or a Network Address Translation (NAT)/firewall device.
The externally-facing public IPv4 address will either be the externally accessible public IP address which is directly available on the LoadMaster or a public IP address on a NAT/firewall device which will be NATed from the LoadMaster's internal IP address.
Microsoft Azure and Amazon Web Services (AWS) are currently the only supported platforms that VPN tunneling on the LoadMaster works with. There are some limitations depending on the cloud platform being used. These limitations are outlined in the table below.
Perfect Forward Secrecy
No Perfect Forward Secrecy
LoadMaster behind a Gateway
LoadMaster with a public IP address
As indicated by the table above, only a public interface tunnel is supported on AWS. This is because Network Address Translation Traversal (NAT-T) is not supported on AWS.
In Azure - multiple remote and private subnets are supported. So, it is possible to have multiple IPsec connections between Azure and the LoadMaster - each connection can connect a certain LoadMaster's private subnet with a certain Azure subnet. It is also possible to connect to multiple tunnels within the one connection.
IPsec tunneling is not enabled or supported on a system which is configured for LoadMaster clustering.
IPsec is most widely used in the context of configuring a secure connection between an entire network (such as a Local Area Network (LAN)) and a remote network using a site-to-site (network-to-network) connection. This document focuses on the setting up and configuring site-to-site tunneling. However, point-to-site and host-to-host (point-to-point) will also work. Please consult the third party documentation or contact Kemp Support for further assistance.
A site-to-site connection requires the setup of IPsec routers/gateways on each side of the connecting networks to transparently process and route information from one node on a LAN to a node on a remote LAN. For example, hosts on the 192.168.1.0/24 IP range can communicate with hosts on the 192.168.2.0/24 IP range.
These LANs use IPsec routers to authenticate and initiate a connection using a secure tunnel through the internet. The process of communicating from one node in the 192.168.1.0/24 IP range to another in the 192.168.2.0/24 range is completely transparent to the nodes as the processing, encryption/decryption and routing of the IPsec packets are completely handled by the IPsec routers.
The following diagram outlines a potential deployment scenario in Microsoft Azure.
The following diagram outlines a potential deployment scenario in AWS. In this case, the firewall and Public IP address are on the LoadMaster and the LoadMaster acts as the security gateway.
IPsec tunnelling using the LoadMaster is currently supported on these cloud platforms:
- Microsoft Azure
- Amazon Web Services (AWS)
Steps on how to set up a VPN connection on each of these cloud platforms are provided in the sections below.
These steps are correct at the time of writing this document. These steps may change without our knowledge. Please consult the relevant third party cloud platform documentation for the latest steps.
There are two options for creating and configuring a virtual network:
Configure the network manually by using a network configuration file
Use the wizard in the Azure Management Portal
It is recommended to use the wizard the first time a virtual network is created. The wizard creates a network configuration file (.xml file) for the virtual network. After creating the first virtual network using the Management Portal, the network configuration file can be exported and used as a template to create additional virtual networks.
Follow the steps below to configure a site-to-site VPN in the Azure Management Portal:
These steps are correct at the time of writing this document. These steps may change without our knowledge. Please consult the Microsoft documentation for the latest steps.
1. Log in to the Azure Management portal.
2. Click New.
3. Click Network Services and then click Virtual Network.
4. Click Custom Create.
5. Enter the Name of the virtual network, for example EastUSVNet.
This network name will be used when deploying the Virtual Machines and Platform as a Service (PaaS) instances so it is recommended to not enter a complicated name here.
6. Specify the Location.
The location is directly related to the physical location (region) where the resources (Virtual Machines) will reside. For example, if the Virtual Machines that will be deployed to this network will be physically located in East US, select that location. The region associated with the virtual network cannot be changed after it is created.
7. On the DNS Servers and VPN Connectivity page, enter the following information and then click the Next arrow:
a) DNS Servers: Enter the DNS server name and IP address, or select a previously registered DNS server from the drop-down menu.
This setting does not create a DNS server. It allows the specification of the DNS servers to be used for name resolution for this virtual network.
b) Configure Site-To-Site VPN: Select the check box called Configure a site-to-site VPN.
c) Local Network: A local network represents the physical on-premises location. Select a local network that has previously been created, or create a new local network.
If an existing local network was selected, go to the Local Networks configuration page and ensure that the VPN Device IP address (public-facing IPv4 address for the VPN device) is accurate for this local network.
8. If an existing local network was selected, skip this step. If creating a new local network, the Site-To-Site Connectivity page will appear. Enter the following information and then click the Next arrow:
a) Name: The name of the local (on-premises) network site.
b) VPN Device IP Address: This is the public-facing IPv4 address of the on-premises VPN device used to connect to Azure.
c) Address Space: Specify the address range(s) (including starting IP and CIDR) to be sent through the virtual network gateway to the local on-premises location. If a destination IP address falls between the ranges specified here, it will be routed through the virtual network gateway.
d) Add address space: If there are multiple address ranges to be sent through the virtual network gateway, this is where each additional address range is specified. Ranges can be added or removed later as needed, on the Local Network page.
9. On the Virtual Network Address Spaces page, specify the address range to be used for the virtual network. Enter the following information, and then click the checkmark to configure the network:
These are the Dynamic IP addresses (DIPS) that will be assigned to the Virtual Machines and other role instances that are deployed to this virtual network. There are a few rules regarding the virtual network address space - please refer to the Microsoft - Virtual Network Address Spaces page for more information. It is particularly important to select a range that does not overlap with any of the ranges that are in use for the on-premises network. A range of IP addresses might need to be carved out from the on-premises network address space to be used for the virtual network.
a) Address Space: Include the starting IP address and the address count.
Verify that the address spaces specified do not overlap with any of the address spaces on the on-premises network.
b) Add subnet: Include the starting IP address and address count.
Additional subnets are not required, but a separate subnet may be needed for Virtual Machines that will have static DIPS. Or the Virtual Machines might need to be in a subnet that is separate from the other role instances.
c) Add gateway subnet: Click to add the gateway subnet. The gateway subnet is used only for the virtual network gateway and is required for this configuration.
10. Click the checkmark on the bottom of the page and the virtual network will begin to create. When it completes, Created will be shown under Status on the Networks page in the Azure Management Portal.
11. Next, configure the virtual network gateway to create a secure site-to-site connection. Refer to Microsoft - Configure a Virtual Network Gateway in the Management Portal for instructions on how to do this.
12. When you get to the Configure your VPN Device section, refer to the section below for instructions on how to configure the LoadMaster.
Follow the steps below to set up a VPN connection on the AWS platform:
1. Log in to the AWS console.
2. Click VPC.
3. Click Virtual Private Gateways.
4. Click Create Virtual Private Gateway.
5. Enter a Name tag.
6. Click the Yes, Create button.
7. Select the Virtual Private Gateway that was just created and click the Attach to VPC button.
8. Select the relevant Virtual Private Cloud (VPC) from the list.
9. Click Yes, Attach.
10. Click Customer Gateways in the menu.
11. Click the Create Customer Gateway button.
12. Enter a recognizable Name tag for the LoadMaster.
13. Enter the IP address of the LoadMaster.
14. Click the Yes, Create button.
15. Click VPN Connections in the menu.
16. Click Create VPN Connection.
17. Enter a recognizable Name tag for the VPN connection.
18. In the Virtual Private Gateway drop-down list, select the Virtual Private Gateway which was created earlier.
19. Select Static in the Routing Options section.
20. Enter the LoadMaster-side network IP address followed by the CIDR in the Static IP Prefixes field.
21. Click the Yes, Create button.
22. Wait for the VPN status to become available.
23. Click Download Configuration.
24. Select Generic as the Vendor.
25. Select Generic as the Platform.
26. Select Vendor Agnostic as the Software.
27. Click the Yes, Download button.
28. Save the text file.
The text file contains the Pre-Shared Key which will be needed when configuring the LoadMaster side.
A connection end point must be added in the LoadMaster for tunneling to work. Follow the steps below to configure the LoadMaster settings:
1. In the main menu of the LoadMaster Web User Interface (WUI), go to System Configuration > Route Management > VPN Management.
2. Enter a unique and recognizable Connection Name and click Create.
3. Enter the IP address for the local side of the connection in the Local IP Address text box and click Set Local IP Address.
In non-HA mode, the Local IP Address should be the LoadMaster IP address, that is, the IP address of the default gateway interface.
In HA-mode, the Local IP Address should be the shared IP address. This will be automatically populated if HA has already been configured. For more information on setting up tunneling in a HA configuration, refer to the next section.
4. When the Local IP Address is set, the Local Subnet Address will be automatically populated. Review the Local Subnet Address and update it if needed. Ensure to click Set Local Subnet Address to apply the setting, whether the address has been changed or not. Multiple local subnets can be specified using a comma-separated list. Up to 10 IP addresses can be specified.
5. The local IP can be the only participant if applicable, given the /32 CIDR. Enter the IP address of the remote side of the connection in the Remote IP Address text box and click Set Remote IP Address.
In the context of an Azure endpoint, this IP address is expected to be the public-facing IP address for the VPN Gateway device. For instructions on how to get this IP address, refer to Microsoft - Configure a Virtual Network Gateway in the Management Portal.
6. Enter the Remote Subnet Address and click Set Remote Subnet Address. Multiple remote subnets can be specified using a comma-separated list. Up to 10 IP addresses can be specified.
7. Either enable or disable Perfect Forward Secrecy.
The cloud platform being used will determine what the Perfect Forward Secrecy option should be set to. Perfect Forward Secrecy is needed for some platforms but is unsupported on others. To find out what will work with your cloud platform, refer to the Prerequisites section.
8. By default, the Local ID text box is populated with the Local IP Address when the Set Local IP Address button is clicked. Review and update this address, if needed.
This may be the local IP address.
If the LoadMaster is in HA mode, the Local ID field will be automatically set to %any. This value cannot be updated when the LoadMaster is in HA mode.
9. Enter identification for the remote side of the connection.
This may be the remote IP address.
10. Enter the pre-shared key string in the Pre-Shared Key (PSK) text box.
This is the Shared key which is generated and managed on the Azure side, as outlined in Microsoft - Configure a Virtual Network Gateway in the Management Portal. It must be taken from Azure and entered in the Pre-Shared Key (PSK) text box in the LoadMaster WUI.
If you are upgrading the LoadMaster firmware from a version older than 7.2.41 to version 7.2.41 or above, Kemp recommends re-entering the PSK to encrypt it.
11. Click Save Secret Information to generate and save the connection identification and secret information.
12. Go back to the VPN Management screen.
Refer to the sections below for information on how to configure certain Virtual Service options.
The Subnet Originating Requests (SOR) option is not relevant in the context of IPsec virtual Real Server resources.
Real Servers that are cloud-based must be specified/configured as non-local for the Virtual Services that require remote resources. The Enable Non-Local Real Servers option must be enabled globally in order for IPsec tunneling to work.
To enable non-local Real Servers globally, follow the steps below in the LoadMaster WUI:
1. In the main menu, go to System Configuration > Miscellaneous Options > Network Options.
2. Select the Enable Non-Local Real Servers check box.
Due to the use of non-local Real Servers, the Transparency option must be disabled in the relevant Virtual Services. To disable transparency, follow the steps below:
1. In the main menu, go to Virtual Services > View/Modify Services.
2. Click Modify on the relevant Virtual Service.
3. Expand the Standard Options section.
4. Remove the tick from the Transparency text box.
When adding a Real Server, ensure the Allow Remote Addresses option is enabled.
This option will only be visible when adding a Real Server if Enable Non-Local Real Servers has been enabled and Transparency has been disabled on the relevant Virtual Service. For instructions on how to configure these options, refer to the Enable Non-Local Real Servers and Disable Transparency sections.
To do this, follow the steps below in the LoadMaster WUI:
1. In the main menu, go to Virtual Services > View/Modify Services.
2. Click Modify on the relevant Virtual Service.
3. Expand the Real Servers section.
4. Click Add New.
5. Enable the Allow Remote Addresses option.
6. Fill out the other details as needed.
Kemp recommends using static IP addresses for the Real Servers on the Azure side.
7. Click Add This Real Server.
When configuring IPsec tunneling in a HA setup, ideally HA should be configured first. For instructions on how to configure HA, refer to the High Availability (HA), Feature Description.
When HA is configured - to set up tunneling, follow the steps in the Configure the Cloud Platform and Configure the LoadMaster sections above. Ensure to configure IPsec tunneling on the master HA unit. If HA is configured, the Local IP Address will be automatically populated with the HA shared IP address. Also, the Local ID field will be automatically set to %any. This value cannot be updated when the LoadMaster is in HA mode.
If the HA shared IP address is changed after the VPN tunnel connection has been established, the tunnel connection will break. Please ensure to update the Local IP Address if the shared IP address changes.
To delete a VPN connection, go to System Configuration > Route Management > VPN Management and click Delete. Then, click OK to the warning.
All associated configuration will be permanently deleted.
A connection can be deleted at any time, even if it is running.
If the connection is down, the diagram on the VPN Management page will say Connection Down and the tunnel will be red.
To view the IPsec IKE Log, go to Logging Options > System Log Files and click View next to IPsec IKE Log.
There are debug options that can help when troubleshooting problems with IPsec tunneling. To see these options, go to System Configuration > Logging Options > System Log Files > Debug Options in the main menu of the LoadMaster WUI.
Stop IPsec IKE Daemon
Stop the IPsec IKE daemon on the LoadMaster.
If this button is clicked, the connection for all tunnels will go down.
Perform an IPsec Status
Display the raw IPsec status output.
Connection information for each tunnel in the output is prefixed with "<ConnectionName>" (for example AZURE in the screenshot above).
Enable IKE Debug Level Logs
Control the IPsec IKE log level. When this option is enabled, additional logs will be shown in the IPsec IKE Log and the IPsec Status.
This debug option can be useful when setting up the connection initially. However, please use extreme caution if enabling this option - enabling this option will restart the daemon which will drop any connections and reestablish them.
Try to ping the remote IP address to check if the connection is working.
Some useful links containing further information are provided below:http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/azure/jj156210.aspx
This document was last updated on 15 July 2021.